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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 59-61
Bin Zhang

ABSTRACT Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), accounts for more than 90% of the total number of diabetes mellitus cases and often occurs in middle-aged and elderly people. Objective: To investigate the effect of exercise intervention on insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetes patients. Methods: Eighty-six obese diabetic patients were screened as experimental subjects in physical examinations and randomly divided into observation and control groups. Visceral fat volume, fasting blood glucose, and fasting insulin of all subjects were measured before and after completion of the 6-month experimental implementation. The insulin resistance was calculated for both groups and the values for each indicator were compared statistically between groups. Results: Control of body weight, body mass index, blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance index were better in the observation group than in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Basal intervention with quantitative exercise can significantly improve insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetes patients and the effect is better than treatment with diet and conventional exercise. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Daniel Kevin Llanera ◽  
Rebekah Wilmington ◽  
Haika Shoo ◽  
Paulo Lisboa ◽  
Ian Jarman ◽  

ObjectiveTo identify clinical and biochemical characteristics associated with 7- &amp; 30-day mortality and intensive care admission amongst diabetes patients admitted with COVID-19.Research Design and MethodsWe conducted a cohort study collecting data from medical notes of hospitalised people with diabetes and COVID-19 in 7 hospitals within the Mersey-Cheshire region from 1 January to 30 June 2020. We also explored the impact on inpatient diabetes team resources. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed and optimised by splitting the dataset into a training, test, and validation sets, developing a robust predictive model for the primary outcome.ResultsWe analyzed data from 1004 diabetes patients (mean age 74.1 (± 12.6) years, predominantly men 60.7%). 45% belonged to the most deprived population quintile in the UK. Median BMI was 27.6 (IQR 23.9-32.4) kg/m2. The primary outcome (7-day mortality) occurred in 24%, increasing to 33% by day 30. Approximately one in ten patients required insulin infusion (9.8%). In univariate analyses, patients with type 2 diabetes had a higher risk of 7-day mortality [p &lt; 0.05, OR 2.52 (1.06, 5.98)]. Patients requiring insulin infusion had a lower risk of death [p = 0.02, OR 0.5 (0.28, 0.9)]. CKD in younger patients (&lt;70 years) had a greater risk of death [OR 2.74 (1.31-5.76)]. BMI, microvascular and macrovascular complications, HbA1c, and random non-fasting blood glucose on admission were not associated with mortality. On multivariate analysis, CRP and age remained associated with the primary outcome [OR 3.44 (2.17, 5.44)] allowing for a validated predictive model for death by day 7.ConclusionsHigher CRP and advanced age were associated with and predictive of death by day 7. However, BMI, presence of diabetes complications, and glycaemic control were not. A high proportion of these patients required insulin infusion warranting increased input from the inpatient diabetes teams.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Gen Ouchi ◽  
Ichiro Komiya ◽  
Shinichiro Taira ◽  
Tamio Wakugami ◽  
Yusuke Ohya

Abstract Background Small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) increases in type 2 diabetes patients and causes arteriosclerosis. Non–high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (non–HDL-C) is thought to be useful for predicting arteriosclerosis and sd-LDL elevation; however, there are no data about whether the triglyceride /low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/LDL-C) ratio is a valuable predictor for sd-LDL. Methods A total of 110 type 2 diabetes patients with hypertriglyceridemia were analyzed. No patients were treated with fibrates, but 47 patients were treated with statins. LDL-C was measured by the direct method. LDL-migration index (LDL-MI) using electrophoresis (polyacrylamide gel, PAG) was calculated, and a value ≥0.400 was determined to indicate an increase in sd-LDL. Simple regression analyses were carried out between LDL-MI and lipid markers. Receiver operating characteristic curves of lipid markers for predicting high LDL-MI were applied to determine the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and cut-off point. Results LDL-MI correlated negatively with LDL-C (P = 0.0027) and PAG LDL fraction (P < 0.0001) and correlated positively with TGs, non–HDL-C, TG/LDL-C ratio, TG/HDL-C ratio, and non–HDL-C/HDL-C ratio among all study patients. Similar results were obtained for patients analyzed according to statin treatment. The AUCs (95% confidence interval) were 0.945 (0.884-1.000) for TG/LDL-C ratio and 0.614 (0.463-0.765) for non–HDL-C in patients without statins (P = 0.0002). The AUCs were 0.697 (0.507-0.887) for TG/LDL-C and 0.682 (0.500-0.863) for non–HDL-C in patients treated with statins. The optimal cut-off point for TG/LDL-C ratio for increased LDL-MI was 1.1 (molar ratio) regardless of statin treatment. The sensitivity and specificity of the TG/LDL-C ratio (90.0 and 93.9%, respectively) were higher than those of non–HDL-C (56.7 and 78.8%, respectively) in patients without statins. Conclusions The TG/LDL-C ratio is a reliable surrogate lipid marker of sd-LDL and superior to non–HDL-C in type 2 diabetes patients not treated with statins.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Atchara Charoenpiriya ◽  
Laor Chailurkit ◽  
Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to determine the differences in biochemical parameters and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) severity in adult patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and utilization of serum BHB as a biomarker for DKA resolution was also evaluated. Materials and methods This prospective observational study of type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus who were diagnosed with DKA between 01 October 2018 and 30 September 2020. The correlations between serum BHB, measured by the Ranbut assay, and pH, bicarbonate, and anion gap were examined. Results A total of 99 diabetes patients were diagnosed with DKA (mean age 39.4 years, 63.4% female, 53.6% T2DM). while infection was the most common precipitating factor in T2DM (43.4%), non-compliance with treatment was the most common precipitating factor in T1DM (43.5%). T1DM patients had more severe DKA more hypokalemia during treatment. However, there was no significant difference in mortality between type1 and type2 diabetes. The initial laboratories evaluation of patients did not significant differ between type1 and type2 diabetes. Serum BHB during treatment of DKA was significantly correlated with changes in serum bicarbonate (r = − 0.64), serum anion gap (r = 0.84), and venous pH (r = − 0.6). The serum BHB levels corresponding to HCO3 levels for DKA severity were 4.5, 5.7, and 5.9 mmol/L in mild, moderate, and severe DKA, respectively. The serum BHB level of < 1 mmol/L had 73.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity to predict DKA resolution. Median time to resolution of DKA was 12 h with an optimized BHB cut-off value of < 1 mmol/L. There were no significant difference in time to resolution of DKA in the patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Conclusions There are no differences in DKA-related biochemical parameters between type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. The present findings suggest that DKA should be assessed and treated similarly, regardless of its occurrence in type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
Ali Abusharha ◽  
Gamal A. El-Hiti ◽  
Mushawwat H. Alsubaie ◽  
Abdulaziz F. Munshi ◽  
Ahmed R. Alnasif ◽  

Diabetes is a very common disease and is considered a risk factor for many diseases such as dry eye. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the tear evaporation rate (TER) in patients with diabetes using a hand-held evaporimeter. This observational, case–control and non-randomized study included 30 male patients with diabetes (17 controlled and 13 uncontrolled) with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 33.1 ± 7.9 years. An age-matched (18–43 years; 32.2 ± 6.5 years) control group consisting of 30 male subjects was also enrolled for comparison. Subjects with thyroid gland disorder, a high body mass index, high blood cholesterol, or thalassemia, contact lens wearers, and smokers were excluded. The TER was measured after the completion of the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) by each participant. The OSDI and TER median scores were significantly (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.05) higher in patients with diabetes (median (interquartile range; IQR) = 12.0 (8.3) and 46.4 (36.7) g/m2h, respectively) compared to the subjects within the control group (5.6 (7.0) and 15.1 (11.9) g/m2h, respectively). The median scores for the OSDI and TER measurements were significantly (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.05) higher among uncontrolled diabetes patients (13.0 (11.5) and 53.4 (14.2) g/m2h, respectively) compared to those obtained for patients with controlled diabetes (11.0 (8.0) and 27.3 (32.6) g/m2h, respectively). The tear evaporation rate in patients with diabetes was significantly higher compared to those obtained in subjects without diabetes. Uncontrolled diabetes patients have a higher tear evaporation rate compared to controlled diabetes patients. Therefore, diabetes can lead to eye dryness, since these patients possibly suffer excessive tear evaporation.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 86
Christiano Argano ◽  
Giuseppe Natoli ◽  
Salvatore Mularo ◽  
Alessandro Nobili ◽  
Marika Lo Monaco ◽  

Background: Currently, diabetes represents the seventh leading cause of death worldwide, with a significant economic burden. The number and severity of comorbidities increase with age, and are identified as important determinants that influence the prognosis. We aimed to investigate comorbidities and outcomes in a cohort of hospitalized elderly patients affected by diabetes. Methods: In this observational study, we retrospectively analyzed data collected from the REgistro dei pazienti per lo studio delle POlipatologie e politerapie in reparti della rete Simi (RePoSI) registry. Socio-demographic, clinical characteristics, and laboratory findings were considered. The association between variables and in-hospital and 1-year follow-up were analyzed. Results: Among 4708 in-patients, 1378 (29.3%) had a diagnosis of diabetes. Patients with diabetes had more previous hospitalization, a clinically significant disability, and more need for a urinary catheter in comparison with subjects without diabetes. Patients affected by diabetes took more drugs, both at admission, at in-hospital stay, at discharge, and at 1-year follow-up. Thirty-five comorbidities were more frequent in patients with diabetes, and the first five were hypertension (57.1%), ischemic heart disease (31.4%), chronic renal failure (28.8%), atrial fibrillation (25.6%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (22.7%). Heart rate was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. At 1-year follow-up, cancer and male sex were strongly independently associated with mortality. Conclusions: Our findings showed the severity of the impact of diabetes and its comorbidities in the real life of internal medicine and geriatric wards, and provide data to be used for a better tailored management of elderly in-patients with diabetes.

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