glycemic control
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 294-296
Author(s):  
Shilpa A Pratinidhi ◽  
Yuvraj Badhe ◽  
Chaitanya Bhujbal ◽  
Mohak Tilokchandani

Magnesium is most important and vital element of body. It needs to be supplemented adequately. It plays a vital role in insulin secretion, insulin binding and homeostasis. When Serum Magnesium is adequate, the glycemic control is better and HbA1c values will fall, thus proving that serum magnesium plays a major role in glycemic control. It is now established that diabetes can by itself induce hypomagnesemia and hypomagnesemia can in turn induce onset or worsen diabetes mellitus.: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 diagnosed cases of type II diabetes mellitus. This study was planned to study if any correlation exists between the level of Serum Magnesium and HbA1C in diagnosed Type II diabetics.: The correlation between the two parameters was not found to be statistically significant.: Owing to COVID-19 restrictions history regarding the duration of disease, the dietary history of the participants could not be obtained : Serum magnesium does not bear a constant relationship with the diabetic control according to the findings of the current study and detailed studies including multi-parametric analysis along with duration of diabetes is required.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Dinithi Vidanage ◽  
Shamini Prathapan ◽  
Priyadarshika Hettiarachchi ◽  
Sudharshani Wasalathanthri

Abstract Background Regular exercise is a key element in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although the importance of regular exercises on glycemic control in people with diabetes is studied extensively, evidence is lacking on its impact on sweet taste perception. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of aerobic exercises on taste perception for sucrose in people with diabetes. Methods A sample of 225 people with diabetes aged 35-60 years was assigned randomly into 3 groups; aerobic exercise, combined exercise and a control group. The outcomes of the combined exercise group is not reported. The aerobic exercise group performed brisk walking 30min/day, 4-5days/week for 6 months. The primary outcome measures were supra-threshold intensity ratings and preference for sucrose assessed at baseline, at 3 and 6 months using ‘general Labeled Magnitude Scale’ and ‘Monell 2-series-forced choice method’ respectively. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level was assessed at baseline and at 6 months to determine glycemic control. Results Aerobic exercise group showed significantly increased ratings (mm) for higher sucrose concentrations at 3 months (mean difference for 2.02M; +6.63±2.50, p=0.048 and for 0.64M; +7.26±2.76, p=0.026) and at 6 months (mean difference for 0.64M; +7.79±4.49, p= 0.044) compared to baseline and also when compared to controls (mean difference for 2.02M between baseline and 3 months; intervention: +6.63±2.50, control: -4.01±1.79, p=0.02 and between baseline and 6 months for 2.02M; intervention: +3.15±0.57, control: -7.96±0.40, p=0.022 and for 0.64M; intervention: +7.79±4.49, control: -8.98±0.99, p=0.003). A significantly reduced preference (mol/L) was seen both at 3 (mean difference; -0.03±0.02, p= 0.037) and at 6 months (mean difference; -0.05±0.12, p=0.011) compared to baseline within the intervention group. Also, a significant reduction was seen in the intervention group compared to controls at 6 months (mean difference; intervention: -0.05±0.12, control: 0.01±0.03, p=0.044). HbA1c was significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to controls at 6 months (mean difference; intervention -0.43±1.6%, control +0.33±1.8%, p=0.018). Conclusion Regular aerobic exercises increase the sweet taste sensitivity, especially for higher concentrations of sucrose and decrease sweet taste preference in people with diabetes . These alterations in sweet taste perception, are likely to contribute to a better glycemic control in people with diabetes. Trial registration This trial was registered at the Sri Lanka Clinical Trial registry on 16/12/2015. (Trial registration number- SLCTR/2015/029, https://slctr.lk/trials/slctr-2015-029).


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Esphie Grace Fodra Fojas ◽  
Saradalekshmi Koramannil Radha ◽  
Tomader Ali ◽  
Evan P. Nadler ◽  
Nader Lessan

BackgroundMelanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) mutations are the most common of the rare monogenic forms of obesity. However, the efficacy of bariatric surgery (BS) and pharmacotherapy on weight and glycemic control in individuals with MC4R deficiency (MC4R-d) is not well-established. We investigated and compared the outcomes of BS and pharmacotherapy in patients with and without MC4R-d.MethodsPertinent details were derived from the electronic database among identified patients who had BS with MC4R-d (study group, SG) and wild-type controls (age- and sex-matched control group, CG). Short- and long-term outcomes were reported for the SG. Short-term outcomes were compared between the two groups.ResultsSeventy patients were screened for MC4R-d. The SG [six individuals (four females, two males); 18 (10–27) years old at BS; 50.3 (41.8–61.9) kg/m2 at BS, three patients with homozygous T162I mutations, two patients with heterozygous T162I mutations, and one patient with heterozygous I170V mutation] had a follow-up duration of up to 10 years. Weight loss, which varied depending on mutation type [17.99 (6.10–22.54) %] was stable for 6 months; heterogeneity of results was observed thereafter. BS was found superior to liraglutide on weight and glycemic control outcomes. At a median follow-up of 6 months, no significant difference was observed on weight loss (20.8% vs. 23.0%, p = 0.65) between the SG and the CG [eight individuals (four females, four males); 19.0 (17.8–36.8) years old at BS, 46.2 (42.0–48.3) kg/m2 at BS or phamacotherapeutic intervention]. Glycemic control in patients with MC4R-d and Type 2 diabetes improved post-BS.ConclusionOur data indicate efficacious short-term but varied long-term weight loss and glycemic control outcomes of BS on patients with MC4R-d, suggesting the importance of ongoing monitoring and complementary therapeutic interventions.


Author(s):  
Rahmathulla Safiyul Rahman ◽  
Hashim Essam Salamah ◽  
Fahad Mohammed Alshair ◽  
Abdullah Abdulhakim Alsawadi ◽  
Oday Mohammed Alghamdi ◽  
...  

The main intervention to reduce the macro-and microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) remains to achieve better long-term glycemic control. We have discussed the clinical and economic advantages of using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices for type 1 DM and type 2 DM (T1DM and T2DM) based on data from relevant studies in the literature. Our findings show that using these modalities is associated with remarkable outcomes, including reduced HbA1c levels and enhanced glycemic control among patients with T1DM and T2DM. This can enhance the quality of care and life for diabetic patients and intervene against the development of serious complications and hypoglycemia-related adverse events. The cost of routinely using these devices might seem relatively high. However, the estimated cost benefits are usually higher as they can significantly reduce hospitalization rates due to hypoglycemia and the frequency of diabetic therapy malpractices, which are frequently encountered. However, not many studies have reported these outcomes, indicating the need to conduct future relevant studies.


2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiayu Cheng ◽  
Xianghai Zhou ◽  
Juming Lu ◽  
Xiaohui Guo ◽  
Linong Ji

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Edward J. Boyko ◽  
Leila R. Zelnick ◽  
Barbara H. Braffett ◽  
Rodica Pop-Busui ◽  
Catherine C. Cowie ◽  
...  

Objective: Intensive glycemic control reduces risk of kidney, retinal, and neurologic complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D), but whether it reduces risk of lower extremity complications is unknown. We examined whether former intensive versus conventional glycemic control among Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) participants with T1D reduced the long-term risk of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) and lower extremity amputations (LEA) in the subsequent Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. <p>Research Design and Methods: DCCT participants [n=1441] completed 6.5 years on average of intensive vs conventional diabetes treatment, after which 1408 were enrolled in EDIC and followed annually over 23 years for DFU and LEA occurrences by physical examination. Multivariable Cox models estimated associations of DCCT treatment assignment and time-updated exposures with DFU or LEA. </p> <p>Results: Intensive versus conventional glycemic control was associated with a significant risk reduction for all DFU (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97), and a similar magnitude but nonsignificant risk reduction for first recorded DFU (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.03) and first LEA (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.36). In adjusted Cox models, clinical neuropathy, lower sural nerve conduction velocity and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy were associated with higher DFU risk; eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>, albuminuria, and macular edema with higher LEA risk; and any retinopathy and greater time-weighted mean DCCT/EDIC HbA1c with higher risk of both outcomes (p<0.05).</p> <p>Conclusions: Early intensive glycemic control decreases long-term DFU risk, the most important antecedent in the causal pathway to LEA.</p>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Edward J. Boyko ◽  
Leila R. Zelnick ◽  
Barbara H. Braffett ◽  
Rodica Pop-Busui ◽  
Catherine C. Cowie ◽  
...  

Objective: Intensive glycemic control reduces risk of kidney, retinal, and neurologic complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D), but whether it reduces risk of lower extremity complications is unknown. We examined whether former intensive versus conventional glycemic control among Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) participants with T1D reduced the long-term risk of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) and lower extremity amputations (LEA) in the subsequent Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. <p>Research Design and Methods: DCCT participants [n=1441] completed 6.5 years on average of intensive vs conventional diabetes treatment, after which 1408 were enrolled in EDIC and followed annually over 23 years for DFU and LEA occurrences by physical examination. Multivariable Cox models estimated associations of DCCT treatment assignment and time-updated exposures with DFU or LEA. </p> <p>Results: Intensive versus conventional glycemic control was associated with a significant risk reduction for all DFU (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97), and a similar magnitude but nonsignificant risk reduction for first recorded DFU (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.03) and first LEA (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.36). In adjusted Cox models, clinical neuropathy, lower sural nerve conduction velocity and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy were associated with higher DFU risk; eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>, albuminuria, and macular edema with higher LEA risk; and any retinopathy and greater time-weighted mean DCCT/EDIC HbA1c with higher risk of both outcomes (p<0.05).</p> <p>Conclusions: Early intensive glycemic control decreases long-term DFU risk, the most important antecedent in the causal pathway to LEA.</p>


Cureus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Isabel Inácio ◽  
Teresa Azevedo ◽  
Ana Margarida Balsa ◽  
Sara Ferreira ◽  
Patrícia Rosinha ◽  
...  

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