The effects of Mach number on the skin friction and velocity fluctuations of the turbulent boundary layer are considered through a sonic eddy model. Originally proposed for free shear flows, the model assumes that the eddies responsible for momentum transfer have a rotation Mach number of unity, with the entrainment rate limited by acoustic signaling. Under this assumption, the model predicts that the skin friction coefficient should go as the inverse Mach number in a regime where the Mach number is larger than unity but smaller than the square root of the Reynolds number. The velocity fluctuations normalized by the friction velocity should be the inverse square root of the Mach number in the same regime. Turbulent transport is controlled by acoustic signaling. The density field adjusts itself such that the Reynolds stresses correspond to the momentum transport. In contrast, the conventional van Driest–Morkovin view is that the Mach number effects are due to density variations directly. A new experiment or simulation is proposed to test this model using different gases in an incompressible boundary layer, following the example of Brown and Roshko in the free shear layer.
In this paper, the authors demonstrate the application of a modified Ru(phen)-based temperature-sensitive paint which was originally developed for the evaluation of unsteady aero-thermodynamic phenomena in high Mach number but short duration experiments. In the present work, the modified TSP with a temperature sensitivity of up to −5.6%/K was applied in a low Mach number long-duration test case in a low-pressure environment. For the demonstration of the paint’s performance, a flat plate with a mounted cylinder was set up in the High-Speed Cascade Wind Tunnel (HGK). The test case was designed to generate vortex shedding frequencies up to 4300 Hz which were sampled using a high-speed camera at 40 kHz frame rate to resolve unsteady surface temperature fields for potential heat-transfer estimations. The experiments were carried out at reduced ambient pressure of p∞ = 13.8 kPa for three inflow Mach numbers being Ma∞=[0.3;0.5;0.7]. In order to enable the resolution of very low temperature fluctuations down to the noise floor of 10−5 K with high spatial and temporal resolution, the flat plate model was equipped with a sprayable carbon nanotube (CNT) heating layer. This constellation, together with the thermal sensors incorporated in the model, allowed for the calculation of a quasi-heat-transfer coefficient from the surface temperature fields. Besides the results of the experiments, the paper highlights the properties of the modified TSP as well as the methodology.
The Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability of magnetohydrodynamic surface waves at the low latitude boundary layer is examined using both an eigenfrequency analysis and a time-dependent wave simulation. The analysis includes the effects of sheared flow and Alfvén velocity gradient. When the magnetosheath flows are perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field direction, unstable KH waves that propagate obliquely to the sheared flow direction occur at the sheared flow surface when the Alfvén Mach number is higher than an instability threshold. Including a shear transition layer between the magnetosphere and magnetosheath leads to secondary KH waves (driven by the sheared flow) that are coupled to the resonant surface Alfvén wave. There are remarkable differences between the primary and the secondary KH waves, including wave frequency, the growth rate, and the ratio between the transverse and compressional components. The secondary KH wave energy is concentrated near the shear Alfvén wave frequency at the magnetosheath with a lower frequency than the primary KH waves. Although the growth rate of the secondary KH waves is lower than the primary KH waves, the threshold condition is lower, so it is expected that these types of waves will dominate at a lower Mach number. Because the transverse component of the secondary KH waves is stronger than that of the primary KH waves, more efficient wave energy transfer from the boundary layer to the inner magnetosphere is also predicted.
This work focuses on the performance and validation of compressible turbulence models for the pressure-strain correlation. Considering the Launder Reece and Rodi (LRR) incompressible model for the pressure-strain correlation, Adumitroaie et al., Huang et al., and Marzougui et al., used different modeling approaches to develop turbulence models, taking into account compressibility effects for this term. Two numerical coefficients are dependent on the turbulent Mach number, and all of the remaining coefficients conserve the same values as in the original LRR model. The models do not correctly predict the compressible turbulence at a high-speed shear flow. So, the revision of these models is the major aim of this study. In the present work, the compressible model for the pressure-strain correlation developed by Khlifi−Lili, involving the turbulent Mach number, the gradient, and the convective Mach numbers, is used to modify the linear mean shear strain and the slow terms of the previous models. The models are tested in two compressible turbulent flows: homogeneous shear flow and the newly developed plane mixing layers. The predicted results of the proposed modifications of the Adumitroaie et al., Huang et al., and Marzougui et al., models and of its universal versions are compared with direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experiment data. The results show that the important parameters of compressibility in homogeneous shear flow and in the mixing layers are well predicted by the proposal models.
The compressibility effect and transport motion in highspeed turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is a fundamental problem because they dominate the average and statistical characteristics. Using the statistical methods and flow visualization technology, flat-plate TBLs at [Formula: see text] with high- and low-wall temperatures, [Formula: see text] and 1.9, are investigated based on the direct numerical simulation (DNS) datasets. Compared with previous studies, this study considers relative higher Mach number and strong cold wall temperature condition at the same time. First, the turbulent Mach number and turbulent intensity show that the compressibility effects are enhanced by the cooling process. Second, the high-order statistical moments and structure parameters confirm cold wall that causes stronger compressibility and the corresponding increased intensities of local streamwise and wall-normal transport motions. Finally, for uncovering the relationship between the compressibility effect and turbulent transport, more in-depth visualization analyses of velocity streaks are performed. It is found that ‘knot-like’ structures are generated when cooling the wall, and they lead to stronger intermittent, which results in the rapid increase of local compressibility effect and the wall-normal transport motion. Our research sheds light on providing a theoretical basis for further understanding the compressibility effects of TBL at high Mach number.
We explore the Carleman linearization of the collision term of the lattice Boltzmann formulation, as a first step towards formulating a quantum lattice Boltzmann algorithm. Specifically, we deal with the case of a single, incompressible fluid with the Bhatnagar Gross and Krook equilibrium function. Under this assumption, the error in the velocities is proportional to the square of the Mach number. Then, we showcase the Carleman linearization technique for the system under study. We compute an upper bound to the number of variables as a function of the order of the Carleman linearization. We study both collision and streaming steps of the lattice Boltzmann formulation under Carleman linearization. We analytically show why linearizing the collision step sacrifices the exactness of streaming in lattice Boltzmann, while also contributing to the blow up in the number of Carleman variables in the classical algorithm. The error arising from Carleman linearization has been shown analytically and numerically to improve exponentially with the Carleman linearization order. This bodes well for the development of a corresponding quantum computing algorithm based on the Lattice Boltzmann equation.
The acoustic equations derived as a linearization of the Euler equations are a valuable system for studies of multi-dimensional solutions. Additionally they possess a low Mach number limit analogous to that of the Euler equations. Aiming at understanding the behaviour of the multi-dimensional Godunov scheme in this limit, first the exact solution of the corresponding Cauchy problem in three spatial dimensions is derived. The appearance of logarithmic singularities in the exact solution of the 4-quadrant Riemann Problem in two dimensions is discussed. The solution formulae are then used to obtain the multidimensional Godunov finite volume scheme in two dimensions. It is shown to be superior to the dimensionally split upwind/Roe scheme concerning its domain of stability and ability to resolve multi-dimensional Riemann problems. It is shown experimentally and theoretically that despite taking into account multi-dimensional information it is, however, not able to resolve the low Mach number limit.