The development of analytical methods for viscoelastic fluid flows is challenging. Currently, this problem has been solved for particular cases of multimode differential rheological equations of media state (Giesekus, the exponential form of Phan-Tien-Tanner, eXtended Pom-Pom). We propose a parametric method that yields solutions without additional assumptions. The method is based on the parametric representation of the unknown velocity functions and the stress tensor components as a function of coordinate. Experimental flow visualization based on the SIV (smoke image velocimetry) method was carried out to confirm the obtained results. Compared to the Giesekus model, the experimental data are best predicted by the eXtended Pom-Pom model.
The P/E Ratio (Price/Earning) is one of the most popular concepts in stock analysis, yet its exact interpretation is lacking. Most stock investors know the P/E Ratio as a financial indicator with the useful characteristics of being relatively time-invariant. In this paper, a rigorous mathematical derivation of the P/E Ratio is presented. The derivation shows that, in addition to its assumptions, the P/E Ratio can be considered the zeroth order solution to the rate of return on investment. The commonly used concept of the Capitalization Rate (Cap Rate = Net Income / Price) in real estate investment analysis can also be similarly derived as the zeroth order solution of the rate of return on real estate investment. This paper also derives the first order solution to the rate of return (Return = Dividend/Price + Growth) with its assumptions. Both the zeroth and the first order solutions are derived from the exact future accounting equation (Cash Return = Sum of Cash Flow + Cash from Resale). The exact equation has been used in the derivation of the exact solution of the rate of return. Empirically, as an illustration of an actual case, the rates of return are 3%, 73%, and 115% for a stock with 70% growth rate for, respectively, the zeroth order, the first order, and the exact solution to the rate of return; the stock doubled its price in 2004. This paper concludes that the zero-th, the first order, and the exact solution of the rate of return all can be derived mathematically from the same exact equation, which, thus, forms a rigorous mathematical foundation for investment analysis, and that the low order solutions have the very practical use in providing the analytically calculated initial conditions for the iterative numerical calculation for the exact solution. The solution of value belongs to recently classified Culture Level Quotient CLQ = 10 and is in the process of being updated by fuzzy logic with its range of tolerance for predicting market crashes to advance to CLQ = 2.
In this paper, we obtain the numerical solution of a 1-D generalised Burgers-Huxley equation under specified initial and boundary conditions, considered in three different regimes. The methods are Forward Time Central Space (FTCS) and a non-standard finite difference scheme (NSFD). We showed the schemes satisfy the generic requirements of the finite difference method in solving a particular problem. There are two proposed solutions for this problem and we show that one of the proposed solutions contains a minor error. We present results using FTCS, NSFD, and exact solution as well as show how the profiles differ when the two proposed solutions are used. In this problem, the boundary conditions are obtained from the proposed solutions. Error analysis and convergence tests are performed.
The acoustic equations derived as a linearization of the Euler equations are a valuable system for studies of multi-dimensional solutions. Additionally they possess a low Mach number limit analogous to that of the Euler equations. Aiming at understanding the behaviour of the multi-dimensional Godunov scheme in this limit, first the exact solution of the corresponding Cauchy problem in three spatial dimensions is derived. The appearance of logarithmic singularities in the exact solution of the 4-quadrant Riemann Problem in two dimensions is discussed. The solution formulae are then used to obtain the multidimensional Godunov finite volume scheme in two dimensions. It is shown to be superior to the dimensionally split upwind/Roe scheme concerning its domain of stability and ability to resolve multi-dimensional Riemann problems. It is shown experimentally and theoretically that despite taking into account multi-dimensional information it is, however, not able to resolve the low Mach number limit.
In this article, the Daftardar-Gejji and Jafari method (DJM) is used to obtain an approximate analytical solution of the sine-Gordon equation. Some examples are solved to demonstrate the accuracy of DJM. A comparison study between DJM, the variational iteration method (VIM), and the exact solution are presented. The comparison of the present symmetrical results with the existing literature is satisfactory.