Gain Of Function
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2022 ◽  
Vol 527 ◽  
pp. 95-106
Xuehui Jiang ◽  
Chaohui Wang ◽  
Ziliang Ke ◽  
Lina Duo ◽  
Ting Wu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Monica Y Lee ◽  
Nur-Taz Rahman ◽  
Bill Sessa

Objective: We have previously demonstrated the in vivo importance of the Akt-eNOS substratekinase relationship, as defective postnatal angiogenesis characteristic of global Akt1-null mice is rescued when bred to gain-of-function eNOS S1176D mutant mice. While multiple studies support the cardioprotective role of endothelial NO generation, the causal role of Akt1-dependent eNOS S1176 phosphorylation during atherosclerotic plaque formation is not yet clear. Approach & Results: We herein bred congenic loss-of-function eNOS S1176A and gain-of function eNOS S1176D mutant mice to the proatherogenic Akt1-/-; ApoE-/- double knockout mice to definitively test the importance of Akt-mediated eNOS S1176 phosphorylation during atherogenesis. We find that a single amino acid substitution at the eNOS S1176 phosphorylation site yields divergent effects on atherosclerotic plaque formation, as an eNOS phospho-mimic aspartate (D) substitution at S1176 leads to decreased indices of atherosclerosis, even when on a proatherogenic Akt1 global deletion background. Conversely, mice harboring an unphosphorylatable mutation to alanine (S1176A) result in increased lipid deposition and cellular apoptosis, phenocopying the physiological consequence of eNOS deletion and/or impaired enzyme function. Furthermore, gene expression analyses of whole aortas indicate a combinatorial detriment from NO deficiency and Western Diet challenge, as loss-of-function eNOS SA mice on a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet present a unique expression pattern indicative of augmented T-cell activity when compared to eNOS S1176D mice. Conclusions: By using genetic epistasis approaches, we conclusively demonstrate that Akt mediated eNOS S1176 phosphorylation and subsequent activation remains to be the most physiologically relevant method of NO production to promote cardioprotective effects.

2022 ◽  
Kohei Hamanaka ◽  
Keita Miyoshi ◽  
Jia-Hui Sun ◽  
Keisuke Hamada ◽  
Takao Komatsubara ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2113649119
Debabrata Das ◽  
Jacob Seemann ◽  
David Greenstein ◽  
Tim Schedl ◽  
Swathi Arur

The fidelity of a signaling pathway depends on its tight regulation in space and time. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) controls wide-ranging cellular processes to promote organismal development and tissue homeostasis. ERK activation depends on a reversible dual phosphorylation on the TEY motif in its active site by ERK kinase (MEK) and dephosphorylation by DUSPs (dual specificity phosphatases). LIP-1, a DUSP6/7 homolog, was proposed to function as an ERK (MPK-1) DUSP in the Caenorhabditis elegans germline primarily because of its phenotype, which morphologically mimics that of a RAS/let-60 gain-of-function mutant (i.e., small oocyte phenotype). Our investigations, however, reveal that loss of lip-1 does not lead to an increase in MPK-1 activity in vivo. Instead, we show that loss of lip-1 leads to 1) a decrease in MPK-1 phosphorylation, 2) lower MPK-1 substrate phosphorylation, 3) phenocopy of mpk-1 reduction-of-function (rather than gain-of-function) allele, and 4) a failure to rescue mpk-1–dependent germline or fertility defects. Moreover, using diverse genetic mutants, we show that the small oocyte phenotype does not correlate with increased ectopic MPK-1 activity and that ectopic increase in MPK-1 phosphorylation does not necessarily result in a small oocyte phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that LIP-1 does not function as an MPK-1 DUSP in the C. elegans germline. Our results caution against overinterpretation of the mechanistic underpinnings of orthologous phenotypes, since they may be a result of independent mechanisms, and provide a framework for characterizing the distinct molecular targets through which LIP-1 may mediate its several germline functions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Shuo Li ◽  
Nianchao Qian ◽  
Chao Jiang ◽  
Wenhong Zu ◽  
Anthony Liang ◽  

AbstractZika virus (ZIKV) infection can be associated with neurological pathologies, such as microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. Effective therapeutics are currently not available. As such, a comprehensive understanding of virus-host interactions may guide the development of medications for ZIKV. Here we report a human genome-wide overexpression screen to identify host factors that regulate ZIKV infection and find TMEM120A as a ZIKV restriction factor. TMEM120A overexpression significantly inhibits ZIKV replication, while TMEM120A knockdown increases ZIKV infection in cell lines. Moreover, Tmem120a knockout in mice facilitates ZIKV infection in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) cells. Mechanistically, the antiviral activity of TMEM120A is dependent on STING, as TMEM120A interacts with STING, promotes the translocation of STING from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and enhances the phosphorylation of downstream TBK1 and IRF3, resulting in the expression of multiple antiviral cytokines and interferon-stimulated genes. In summary, our gain-of-function screening identifies TMEM120A as a key activator of the antiviral signaling of STING.

Conor McClenaghan ◽  
Novella Rapini ◽  
Domenico Umberto De Rose ◽  
Jian Gao ◽  
Jacob Roeglin ◽  

Background/Aims: Mutations in KCNJ11, the gene encoding the Kir6.2 subunit of pancreatic and neuronal KATP channels, are associated with a spectrum of neonatal diabetes diseases. Methods: Variant screening was used to identify cause of neonatal diabetes, and continuous glucose monitoring used to assess effectiveness of sulfonylurea treatment. Electrophysiological analysis of variant KATP channel function was used to determine molecular basis. Results: We identified a previously uncharacterized KCNJ11 mutation, c.988T>C [pTyr330His], in an Italian child diagnosed with sulfonylurea-resistant permanent neonatal diabetes and developmental delay (iDEND). Functional analysis of recombinant KATP channels reveals that this mutation causes a drastic gain-of-function, due to a reduction in ATP-inhibition. Further, we demonstrate that the Tyr330His substitution causes a significant decrease in sensitivity to the sulfonylurea, glibenclamide. Conclusions: In this subject, the KCNJ11(c.988T>C) mutation provoked neonatal diabetes, with mild developmental delay, which was insensitive to correction by sulfonylurea therapy. This is explained by the molecular loss of sulfonylurea sensitivity conferred by the Tyr330His substitution, and highlights the need for molecular analysis of such mutations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Mahar Fatima ◽  
Hannah Slade ◽  
Lorraine Horwitz ◽  
Angela Shi ◽  
Jingyi Liu ◽  

Thermosensitive transient receptor potential V3 (TRPV3) is a polymodal receptor implicated in nociceptive, thermoceptive, pruritoceptive, and inflammatory pathways. Reports focused on understanding the role of TRPV3 in thermoception or nociception are not conclusive. Previous studies also show that aberrant hyperactivity of TRPV3 channels results in spontaneous itch and dermatitis-like symptoms, but the resultant behavior is highly dependent on the background of the animal and the skin microbiome. To determine the function of hyperactive TRPV3 channels in somatosensory sensations, we tested different somatosensory behaviors using a genetic mouse model that carries a gain-of-function point mutation G573S in the Trpv3 gene (Trpv3G573S). Here we report that Trpv3G573S mutants show reduced perception of cold, acetone-induced cooling, punctate, and sharp mechanical pain. By contrast, locomotion, noxious heat, touch, and mechanical itch are unaffected in Trpv3G573S mice. We fail to observe any spontaneous itch responses and/or dermatitis in Trpv3G573S mutants under specific pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus)-free conditions. However, we find that the scratching events in response to various pruritogens are dramatically decreased in Trpv3G573S mice in comparison to wild-type littermates. Interestingly, we observe sensory hypoinnervation of the epidermis in Trpv3G573S mutants, which might contribute to the deficits in acute mechanical pain, cool, cold, and itch sensations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. a006140
Florence Choo ◽  
Igor Odinstov ◽  
Kevin Nusser ◽  
Katelyn S. Nicholson ◽  
Lara Davis ◽  

Spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (ssRMS) is a rare subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma, commonly harboring a gain-of-function L122R mutation in the muscle-specific master transcription factor MYOD1. MYOD1-mutated ssRMS is almost invariably fatal, and development of novel therapeutic approaches based on the biology of the disease is urgently needed. MYOD1 L122R affects the DNA-binding domain and is believed to confer MYC-like properties to MYOD1, driving oncogenesis. Moreover, the majority of the MYOD1-mutated ssRMS harbor additional alterations activating the PI3K/AKT pathway. It is postulated that the PI3K/AKT pathway cooperates with MYOD1 L122R. To address this biological entity, we established and characterized a new patient-derived ssRMS cell line OHSU-SARC001, harboring MYOD1 L122R as well as alterations in PTEN, PIK3CA, and GNAS. We explored the functional impact of these aberrations on oncogenic signaling with gain-of-function experiments in C2C12 murine muscle lineage cells. These data reveal that PIK3CAI459_T462del, the novel PIK3CA variant discovered in this patient specimen, is a constitutively active kinase, albeit to a lesser extent than PI3KCAE545K, a hotspot oncogenic mutation. Furthermore, we examined the effectiveness of molecularly targeted PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/MAPK inhibitors to block oncogenic signaling and suppress the growth of OHSU-SARC001 cells. Dual PI3K/mTOR (LY3023414, bimiralisib) and AKT inhibitors (ipatasertib, afuresertib) induced dose-dependent reductions in cell growth. However, mTOR-selective inhibitors (everolimus, rapamycin) alone did not exert cytotoxic effects. The MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib did not impact proliferation even at the highest doses tested. Our data suggest that molecularly targeted strategies may be effective in PI3K/AKT/mTOR-activated ssRMS. Taken together, these data highlight the importance of utilizing patient-derived models to assess molecularly targetable treatments and their potential as future treatment options.

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