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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 950
Rosaria Russo ◽  
Margherita Romeo ◽  
Tim Schulte ◽  
Martina Maritan ◽  
Luca Oberti ◽  

Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is caused by the aberrant overproduction of immunoglobulin light chains (LCs). The resulting abnormally high LC concentrations in blood lead to deposit formation in the heart and other target organs. Organ damage is caused not only by the accumulation of bulky amyloid deposits, but extensive clinical data indicate that circulating soluble LCs also exert cardiotoxic effects. The nematode C. elegans has been validated to recapitulate LC soluble toxicity in vivo, and in such a model a role for copper ions in increasing LC soluble toxicity has been reported. Here, we applied microscale thermophoresis, isothermal calorimetry and thermal melting to demonstrate the specific binding of Cu2+ to the variable domain of amyloidogenic H7 with a sub-micromolar affinity. Histidine residues present in the LC sequence are not involved in the binding, and yet their mutation to Ala reduces the soluble toxicity of H7. Copper ions bind to and destabilize the variable domains and induce a limited stabilization in this domain. In summary, the data reported here, elucidate the biochemical bases of the Cu2+-induced toxicity; moreover, they also show that copper binding is just one of the several biochemical traits contributing to LC soluble in vivo toxicity.

2022 ◽  
Yao L. Wang ◽  
Noa W. F. Grooms ◽  
Samuel H Chung

Femtosecond lasers are capable of precise ablation that produce surgical dissections in vivo. The transverse and axial resolution of the laser damage inside the bulk are important parameters of ablation. The transverse resolution is routinely quantified, but the axial resolution is more difficult to measure and is less commonly performed. In some in vivo samples, fine dissections can also be difficult to visualize, but in vitro samples may allow clear imaging. Using a 1040-nm, 400-fs pulsed laser, we performed ablation inside agarose and glass, producing clear and persistent damage spots. Near the ablation threshold of both media, we found that the axial resolution is similar to the transverse resolution. We also ablated neuron cell bodies and fibers in C. elegans and demonstrate submicrometer resolution in both the transverse and axial directions, consistent with our results in agarose and glass. Using simple yet rigorous methods, we define the resolution of laser ablation in transparent media along all directions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Carresse Gerald ◽  
Boris Deshazo ◽  
Hayden Patterson ◽  
Porché Spence

Abstract Background Third Fork Creek is a historically impaired urban stream that flows through the city of Durham, North Carolina. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) are non-parasitic, soil and aquatic dwelling nematodes that have been used frequently as a biological and ecotoxicity model. We hypothesize that exposure to Third Fork Creek surface water will inhibit the growth and chemotaxis of C. elegans. Using our ring assay model, nematodes were enticed to cross the water samples to reach a bacterial food source which allowed observation of chemotaxis. The total number of nematodes found in the bacterial food source and the middle of the plate with the water source was recorded for 3 days. Results Our findings suggest a reduction in chemotaxis and growth on day three in nematodes exposed to Third Fork Creek water samples when compared to the control (p value < 0.05). These exploratory data provide meaningful insight to the quality of Third Fork Creek located near a Historically Black University. Conclusions Further studies are necessary to elucidate the concentrations of the water contaminants and implications for human health. The relevance of this study lies within the model C. elegans that has been used in a plethora of human diseases and exposure research but can be utilized as an environmental indicator of water quality impairment.

2022 ◽  
Raphael Dima ◽  
Marianne Bah Tahe ◽  
Yann A Chabi ◽  
Lise Rivollet ◽  
Anthony F Arena ◽  

The establishment of complex cell shapes is essential for specific cellular functions, and thus critical in animal development and physiology. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are conserved glycoproteins that regulate interactions between extracellular signals and their receptors, to orchestrate morphogenetic events and elicit cellular responses. Although HSPG-regulated pathways have been implicated in regulating the guidance of neuronal migrations, whether HSPGs regulate earlier aspects of cellular development that dictate cell shape remains unknown. HSPGs consist of a protein core (e.g., Syndecan, Perlecan, Glypican, etc.) with attached heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycan chains, which are synthesized by glycosyltransferases of the exostosin family. Using mutations in the two C. elegans HS glycosyltransferases genes, rib-1 and rib-2, we reveal that HSPGs control the number of cellular projections in the epithelial excretory canal cell, which can form more than its normal four canals in these mutants. We identify SDN-1/Syndecan as the key HSPG that regulates the number of excretory canal cell projections in a cell-autonomous manner. We also find that Syndecan and guidance receptors for Netrin function in the same pathway to restrict the number of cellular projections. Furthermore, we show that the formation of extra projections in the absence of Syndecan requires the conserved Rho-family GTPases CED-10/Rac and MIG-2/RhoG. Our findings not only contribute to understanding the roles of conserved HSPGs in cellular morphogenetic events, but also reveal the existence of an HSPG-regulated system operating to guarantee that a precise number of cellular projections is established during cell development. Given the evolutionary conservation of developmental mechanisms and the molecules implicated, this work provides information relevant to understanding the cellular and molecular bases of the development of precise cellular morphologies in varied cell types across animals.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 160
Katharina Murillo ◽  
Azat Samigullin ◽  
Per M. Humpert ◽  
Thomas Fleming ◽  
Kübra Özer ◽  

C. elegans are used to study molecular pathways, linking high glucose levels (HG) to diabetic complications. Persistent exposure of C. elegans to a HG environment induces the mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), leading to neuronal damage and decreased lifespan. Studies suggest that transient high glucose exposure (TGE) exerts different effects than persistent exposure. Thus, the effects of TGE on ROS, AGE-formation and life span were studied in C. elegans. Four-day TGE (400 mM) as compared to controls (0mM) showed a persistent increase of ROS (4-days 286 ± 40 RLUs vs. control 187 ± 23 RLUs) without increased formation of AGEs. TGE increased body motility (1-day 0.14 ± 0.02; 4-days 0.15 ± 0.01; 6-days 0.16 ± 0.02 vs. control 0.10 ± 0.02 in mm/s), and bending angle (1-day 17.7 ± 1.55; 3-days 18.7 ± 1.39; 6-days 20.3 ± 0.61 vs. control 15.3 ± 1.63 in degree/s) as signs of neuronal damage. Lifespan was increased by 27% (21 ± 2.4 days) after one-day TGE, 34% (22 ± 1.2 days) after four-days TGE, and 26% (21 ± 1.4 days) after six-days TGE vs. control (16 ± 1.3 days). These experiments suggest that TGE in C. elegans has positive effects on life span and neuronal function, associated with mildly increased ROS-formation. From the perspective of metabolic memory, hormetic effects outweighed the detrimental effects of a HG environment.

Bob Goldstein

Experimentally tractable organisms like C. elegans, Drosophila, zebrafish, and mouse are popular models for addressing diverse questions in biology. In 1997, two of the most valuable invertebrate model organisms to date &ndash; C. elegans and Drosophila &ndash; were found to be much more closely related to each other than expected. C. elegans and Drosophila belong to the nematodes and arthropods respectively, and these two phyla and six other phyla make up a clade of molting animals referred to as the Ecdysozoa. The other ecdysozoan phyla could be valuable models for comparative biology, taking advantage of the rich and continual sources of research findings as well as tools from both C. elegans and Drosophila. But when the Ecdysozoa was first recognized, few tools were available for laboratory studies in any of these six other ecdysozoan phyla. In 1999 I began an effort to develop tools for studying one such phylum, the tardigrades. Here, I describe how the tardigrade species Hypsibius exemplaris and tardigrades more generally have emerged over the past two decades as valuable new models for answering diverse questions. To date, these questions have included how animal body plans evolve and how biological materials can survive some remarkably extreme conditions.

2022 ◽  
Imge Ozugergin ◽  
Karina Mastronardi ◽  
Chris Law ◽  
Alisa Piekny

Cytokinesis occurs at the end of mitosis due to the ingression of a contractile ring that cleaves the daughter cells. The core machinery regulating this crucial process is conserved among metazoans. Multiple pathways control ring assembly, but their contribution in different cell types is not known. We found that in the C. elegans embryo, AB and P1 cells fated to be somatic tissue and germline, respectively, have different cytokinesis kinetics supported by distinct myosin levels and organization. Through perturbation of RhoA or polarity regulators and the generation of tetraploid strains, we found that ring assembly is controlled by multiple fate-dependent factors that include myosin-levels, and mechanisms that respond to cell size. Active Ran coordinates ring position with the segregating chromatids in HeLa cells by forming an inverse gradient with importins that control the cortical recruitment of anillin. We found that the Ran pathway regulates anillin in AB cells, but functions differently in P1 cells. We propose that ring assembly delays in P1 cells caused by low myosin and Ran signaling coordinate the timing of ring closure with their somatic neighbours.

BMC Nutrition ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Samantha Hughes ◽  
Nikki Kolsters ◽  
David van de Klashorst ◽  
Emanuel Kreuter ◽  
Karin Berger Büter

Abstract Background Members of the Rosaceae, Solanaceae and Zingiberaceae families which include fruits such as cherries, tomatoes and ginger are known to have health promoting effects. There is growing interest in consuming these “functional foods” as a means to increase health and healthy ageing. However, many studies explore the effect of these foods in isolation, not as a blend of multiple functional foods. Methods In this study, an extract containing the dried berries, fruits, and roots of members of these families was prepared, which we called Bioact®180. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was used to evaluate the effects of Bioact®180 on lifespan and health endpoints, including muscle and mitochondria structure and locomotion. Results Exposure to the 1000 µg/mL of Bioact®180 extract, containing 4% total phenols, were healthier, as observed by an increase in mean lifespan with and small but significant increase in maximal lifespan. Nematodes exposed to Bioact®180 displayed better mobility in mid-life stages as well as enhanced mitochondrial morphology, which was more comparable to younger animals, suggesting that these worms are protected to some degree from sarcopenia. Conclusions Together, our findings reveal that Bioact®180, a blend of fruits and roots from Rosaceae, Solanaceae and Zingiberaceae family members has anti-aging effects. Bioact®180 promotes health and lifespan extension in C. elegans, corresponding to functional improvements in mobility.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2113649119
Debabrata Das ◽  
Jacob Seemann ◽  
David Greenstein ◽  
Tim Schedl ◽  
Swathi Arur

The fidelity of a signaling pathway depends on its tight regulation in space and time. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) controls wide-ranging cellular processes to promote organismal development and tissue homeostasis. ERK activation depends on a reversible dual phosphorylation on the TEY motif in its active site by ERK kinase (MEK) and dephosphorylation by DUSPs (dual specificity phosphatases). LIP-1, a DUSP6/7 homolog, was proposed to function as an ERK (MPK-1) DUSP in the Caenorhabditis elegans germline primarily because of its phenotype, which morphologically mimics that of a RAS/let-60 gain-of-function mutant (i.e., small oocyte phenotype). Our investigations, however, reveal that loss of lip-1 does not lead to an increase in MPK-1 activity in vivo. Instead, we show that loss of lip-1 leads to 1) a decrease in MPK-1 phosphorylation, 2) lower MPK-1 substrate phosphorylation, 3) phenocopy of mpk-1 reduction-of-function (rather than gain-of-function) allele, and 4) a failure to rescue mpk-1–dependent germline or fertility defects. Moreover, using diverse genetic mutants, we show that the small oocyte phenotype does not correlate with increased ectopic MPK-1 activity and that ectopic increase in MPK-1 phosphorylation does not necessarily result in a small oocyte phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that LIP-1 does not function as an MPK-1 DUSP in the C. elegans germline. Our results caution against overinterpretation of the mechanistic underpinnings of orthologous phenotypes, since they may be a result of independent mechanisms, and provide a framework for characterizing the distinct molecular targets through which LIP-1 may mediate its several germline functions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Cliff J. Luke ◽  
Stephanie Markovina ◽  
Misty Good ◽  
Ira E. Wight ◽  
Brian J. Thomas ◽  

AbstractLysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cathepsin release typifies lysosome-dependent cell death (LDCD). However, LMP occurs in most regulated cell death programs suggesting LDCD is not an independent cell death pathway, but is conscripted to facilitate the final cellular demise by other cell death routines. Previously, we demonstrated that Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) null for a cysteine protease inhibitor, srp-6, undergo a specific LDCD pathway characterized by LMP and cathepsin-dependent cytoplasmic proteolysis. We designated this cell death routine, lysoptosis, to distinguish it from other pathways employing LMP. In this study, mouse and human epithelial cells lacking srp-6 homologues, mSerpinb3a and SERPINB3, respectively, demonstrated a lysoptosis phenotype distinct from other cell death pathways. Like in C. elegans, this pathway depended on LMP and released cathepsins, predominantly cathepsin L. These studies suggested that lysoptosis is an evolutionarily-conserved eukaryotic LDCD that predominates in the absence of neutralizing endogenous inhibitors.

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