In this article we present an isotopic analysis of human bone collagen (δ13Ccol, and δ15Ncol) and bone apatite (δ13C) for diet reconstruction, as well as δ18Oap of human bone apatite for climate reconstruction, using samples from Northern Greece. Radiocarbon dating analysis was conducted on three of the Agras samples and the results (from 1000 to 800 BC) correspond to the Early Iron Age. Isotopic values for δ13Ccol range from −20.5‰ to −16‰ and for δ15Ncol from 6‰ to 11.1‰—a strong indication of a C3-based diet, with contributions by C4 and freshwater fish elements. The results were compared to the ones from Roman Edessa, and Alexandreia (a contemporary city near Edessa), as well as to other Early Iron sites in Greece and wider Europe. In general, the results from Agras are in good agreement with the results from Northern Greece, with the exception of the Makriyalos site, and are quite close to those of Croatia’s and Hungary’s sites. Additionally, from the δ18Oap results we calculated the oxygen isotopic composition of consumed water for Agras (from −9.6‰ to −10.9‰) and for Roman Edessa (from −9.6‰ to −11.2‰) for the palaeoclimate and palaeomobility reconstruction.
Research subject. Wenlock deposits in the Subpolar Urals and southern part of the Chernyshev Ridge. Materials and methods. Carbonate and terrigenous-carbonate rock samples from sections of the Subpolar Urals (outcrops 212, 217) and the southern part of the Chernyshev Ridge (outcrop 479) were studied by isotope analysis of carbonate carbon and oxygen.Results. The isotopic composition of the studied sections varies across a wide range of δ13С (–6.4…–0.05‰) and δ18O (20.0–26.9‰). Therefore, three time intervals characterized by distinctive isotopic characteristics can be distinguished, roughly corresponding to early Sheinwoodian (I), late Sheinwoodian (II) and Homerian (III). Interval I is characterized exclusively by the rocks of outcrop 479 with δ13С (–3.6…–3.0‰) and δ18O (22.4–23.6‰). In Interval II, the average values of isotopic characteristics of outcrop 479 indicate a tendency to weighting carbon (–5.5…–3.5‰) and somewhat heavier oxygen (23.2–25.2‰) isotopes. In outcrop 212, the average isotopic values for carbon and oxygen vary from –2.9 to –1.3‰ and from 21.9 to 24.3‰, respectively. In outcrop 217, the average values are δ13C (–1.8…–0.8‰) and δ18O (22.4–25.4‰). In Interval III, the average values of carbon isotopic composition in outcrop 479 are becoming heavier from –2.5 to –0.7‰. In outcrop 212, the isotopic values of oxygen (21.9–23.1‰) and carbon (–4.9…–2.5‰) tend to become weighting; however, in outcrop 217, the average isotopic values of δ13C (–1.9…–0.5‰) and δ18O (22.3–24.5‰) remain constant. The conducted litho-facial studies showed that the weighting carbon isotopic composition ranging from –6.4…to –3.0‰ is associated with an increase in microbial activity in sediments, the manifestation of vadose-phreatic conditions, and the intake of light carbon dioxide with a flow of terrigenous material from the earth. In the latter case, oxygen isotopic values are also the most lightweight (20.0–23.0‰).Conclusions. The obtained isotopic characteristics of the Wenlock rocks under study indicate the expedience of identifying three time intervals and their correlation with paleogeographic reconstructions of Wenlockian sedimentation in the Timan-northern Ural region.
Paleoclimatic investigation of loess-paleosol sequences from northern Iran is important for understanding past changes in a region highly sensitive to shifts in precipitation, and along potential routes of past human migration. Here, we present carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of bulk carbonate (δ13Cbc and δ18Obc, respectively) coupled with particle size distributions of samples from the Mobarakabad section, northern Iran, to study past wind dynamics and hydroclimate. We also present new initial clay-sized Hf-Nd isotope results from key horizons in order to assess general dust sources. Variations of δ13Cbc and δ18Obc values of modern soils compared to paleosols allow reconstruction of late Pleistocene–Holocene climate change in the area. Our results show severe drought during a major eolian deposition phase (EDP) after 34 ka. The thickness and PSD of the C horizon of unit 5 suggest significant shifts in loess sources and depositional environments during this EDP after 34 ka. Indeed, based on our new clay-sized Hf-Nd data, we hypothesize that the loess unit 5 might originate from the young crustal source of the Alborz and Kopet Dagh mountains. In general, the PSD of C horizons in the section is bimodal in the silt fraction and the very small, very fine clay fraction, with a mode at c. 1 μm in the modern soil and paleosols possibly produced by weathering and pedogenic processes. There also appears to be a good correlation between δ13Cbc and δ18Obc values, differentiating phases of loess accumulation and paleosol formation and hence providing quantitative data for reconstructing paleoclimatic conditions in the study area.
The delta values of the isotope composition of atmospheric ozone is ~100‰ (referenced to atmospheric O2). Previous photochemical models, which considered the isotope fractionation processes from both formation and photolysis of ozone, predicted δ49O3 and δ50O3 values, in δ49O3 versus δ50O3 space, that are >10‰ larger than the measurements. We propose that the difference between the model and observations could be explained either by the temperature variation, Chappuis band photolysis, or a combination of the two and examine them. The isotopic fractionation associated with ozone formation increases with temperature. Our model shows that a hypothetical reduction of ~20 K in the nominal temperature profile could reproduce the observations. However, this hypothesis is not consistent with temperatures obtained by in situ measurements and NCEP Reanalysis. Photolysis of O3 in the Chappuis band causes O3 to be isotopically depleted, which is supported by laboratory measurements for 18O18O18O but not by recent new laboratory data made at several wavelengths for 49O3 and 50O3. Cloud reflection can significantly enhance the photolysis rate and affect the spectral distribution of photons, which could influence the isotopic composition of ozone. Sensitivity studies that modify the isotopic composition of ozone by the above two mechanisms are presented. We conclude isotopic fractionation occurring in photolysis in the Chappuis band remains the most plausible solution to the model-observation discrepancy. Implications of our results for using the oxygen isotopic signature for constraining atmospheric chemical processes related to ozone, such as CO2, nitrate, and the hydroxyl radical, are discussed.
The aim of the present study is to reconstruct sedimentary conditions of Middle Jurassic rocks that contain siderites to identify the mineral composition of the inserbeds and to recognize the origin of the siderite. Thin inserbeds of siderite rocks occur most frequently within Bajocian siliciclastic deposits and, more rarely, Aalenian and Bathonian. The research material comes from 11 boreholes located in the north and northeastern margins of the Holy Cross Mountains. The research methods included sedimentological analyses, and studies in polarizing and scanning electron microscopes, staining of carbonates, cathodoluminescence, X-ray structural analysis, and stable carbon and oxygen isotopic determinations were used. Middle Jurassic sideritic rocks are most often represented by clayey siderites, which also include muddy and sandy varieties and siderite sandstones. There are also local occurrences of coquinas, claystones, mudstones, and siderite conglomerates. The main component of sideritic rocks is sideroplesite. Berthierine, pistomesite, calcite, and ankerite are important components, too. The action of diagenetic processes of cementation, compaction, replacement, and alteration within the Middle Jurassic deposits was most intense during the eo- and mesodiagenesis. The sedimentological analysis showed that most of the studied siderites were formed in a low-oxygenated marine environment, mainly in the transition zone between the normal and storm wave bases and in the lower and middle shoreface zones. The results of the petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical studies indicated the origin of the sideritic rocks mainly in the marine environment, with the participation of meteoric water. There were slight differences in the chemical composition of sideroplesite depending on the environment it crystallized in. There was no correlation between the values of the carbon isotope determinations in the sideroplesite and the environmental conditions of its crystallization. Slight differences were visible in the case of the average values of δ18O in the sideroplesite.