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2022 ◽  
Vol 270 ◽  
pp. 564-570
James E. Wiseman ◽  
Lilah F. Morris-Wiseman ◽  
Chiu-Hsieh Hsu ◽  
Taylor S. Riall

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 26-29
Feeroz Alam Khan ◽  
Prabir Maharjan

Introduction: Undescended testis is one of the commonest presentations in pediatric population. Conventionally, high ligation of the hernia sac was done after vas and vessels were dissected in order to prevent post-operative hernia. However, recent studies have shown that hernia sac ligation was unnecessary. Aims: To evaluate the role of hernia sac ligation during orchidopexy to prevent the development of postoperative hernia and to compare the mean operative time with and without sac ligation. Methods: A prospective comparative study was conducted with a total of 94 patients with undescended testis, age ranging from six months to 16 years were included in the study from November 2018 to May 2021. Cases were randomly divided into two groups. In Group A cases, orchidopexy was carried out with sac ligation, while in Group B, the hernia sac was not ligated. Mean operative time was recorded in each case. All the patients were followed up at one, four and eight weeks post-operatively and examined for postoperative hernia. Results: Of the total 94 cases, there were 18 bilateral and 76 unilateral cases of which 56 were right-sided and 22 left-sided. Most of the patients (45) of the study were between six months and 2 years. None of the patients of either group developed post-operative hernia or any significant complications. The mean operative time for group A and B were 36.72 and 46.96 minutes respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that ligation of processus vaginalis was unnecessary during orchidopexy and sac ligation consumed more operative time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zhimin Liang ◽  
Xiaofan Deng ◽  
Lingli Li ◽  
Jing Wang

Aim: To compare the arthroscopy vs. arthrotomy for the treatment of native knee septic arthritis.Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies. Retrospective comparative studies comparing arthroscopy or arthrotomy for patients with septic arthritis of the native knee were eligible for this review. The primary outcome was recurrence of infection after first procedure. The secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay, operative time, range of motion of the involved knee after surgery, overall complications and mortality rate,Results: Thirteen trials were included in this study. There were a total of 2,162 septic arthritis knees treated with arthroscopic debridement and irrigation, and 1,889 septic arthritis knees treated with open debridement and irrigation. Arthroscopy and arthrotomy management of the knee septic arthritis showed comparable rate of reinfection (OR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.57–1.27; P = 0.44). No significant difference was observed in hospital length of stay, operative time and mortality rate between arthroscopy and arthrotomy management group, while arthroscopy treatment was associated with significantly higher knee range of motion and lower complication rate when compared with arthrotomy treatment.Conclusion: Arthroscopy and arthrotomy showed similar efficacy in infection eradication in the treatment of native septic knee. However, arthroscopy treatment was associated with better postoperative functional recovery and lower complication rate.

Adetokunbo Fadipe ◽  
David Wilkinson ◽  
Robert Peters ◽  
Catherine Doherty ◽  
Nick Lansdale

Abstract Aims Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is routinely performed in children, however, a large spleen in a small child can pose significant operative challenges. We instigated a highly standardised surgical and anaesthetic approach to LS to minimise surgical trauma and enhance recovery. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of this programme. Methods Prospective study of all LS’s performed 2018–2021. Surgical approach was via one 10 mm and three 5 mm ports. Early hilar control was accomplished with Hem-o-loks. Splenic retrieval via the 10 mm incision used finger morcellation within an Espiner EcoSac. Anaesthesia utilised a standardised regime of agents and bupivacaine was infiltrated to the splenic bed and wound sites. Post-operative opiates were minimised. Data are presented as median [IQR]. Results Twenty consecutive children were included. Indications for LS were hereditary spherocytosis (n = 12), sickle cell disease (n = 6), beta-thalassaemia (n = 1) and splenic haemangiomatosis (n = 1). Age at surgery was 101 months [75–117] and weight 30 kg [21–37]. Splenic size was 13.4 cm [12–14.4]. Operative time was 178 min [156–185]. There were no open conversions and no significant intra or post-operative bleeding. One patient developed pancreatitis. Median post-operative pain score was 1 [1–3]. Median length of stay was 2 days [2–3]. Conclusion LS is feasible, safe and efficient in smaller children with large spleens. This standardised programme of anaesthesia and surgery based around a core team reliably results in few complications, good analgesia and short length of stay.

Allon van Uitert ◽  
Elle C. J. van de Wiel ◽  
Jordache Ramjith ◽  
Jaap Deinum ◽  
Henri J. L. M. Timmers ◽  

Abstract Background Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (PRA) has several advantages over transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy (TLA) regarding operative time, blood loss, postoperative pain, and recovery. However, it can be a technically challenging procedure. To improve patient selection for PRA, we developed a preoperative nomogram to predict operative time. Methods All consecutive patients with tumors of ≤ 7 cm and a body mass index (BMI) of < 35 kg/m2 undergoing unilateral PRA between February 2011 and March 2020 were included in the study. The primary outcome was operative time as surrogate endpoint for surgical complexity. Using ten patient variables, an optimal prediction model was created, with a best subsets regression analysis to find the best one-variable up to the best seven-variable model. Results In total 215 patients were included, with a mean age of 52 years and mean tumor size of 2.4 cm. After best subsets regression analysis, a four-variable nomogram was selected and calibrated. This model included sex, pheochromocytoma, BMI, and perinephric fat, which were all individually significant predictors. This model showed an ideal balance between predictive power and applicability, with an R2 of 38.6. Conclusions A four-variable nomogram was developed to predict operative time in PRA, which can aid the surgeon to preoperatively identify suitable patients for PRA. If the nomogram predicts longer operative time and therefore a more complex operation, TLA should be considered as an alternative approach since it provides a larger working space. Also, the nomogram can be used for training purposes to select patients with favorable characteristics when learning this surgical approach.

Shane P. Smith ◽  
Charlotte R. Spear ◽  
Patrick E. Ryan ◽  
David M. Stout ◽  
Samuel J. Youssef ◽  

Objective: Coronary sinus injury related to the use of a retrograde cardioplegia catheter is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication with mortality reported as high as 20%. We present a series of iatrogenic coronary sinus injuries as well as an effective method of repair without any ensuing mortality. Methods: There were 3,004 cases that utilized retrograde cardioplegia at our institution from 2007 to 2018. Of these, 15 patients suffered a coronary sinus injury, an incidence of 0.49%. A pericardial roof repair was performed in 14 cases in which autologous pericardium was sutured circumferentially to normal epicardium around the injury with purified bovine serum albumin and glutaraldehyde injected into the newly created space as a sealant. Incidence of perioperative morbidity and mortality, operative time, and length of stay were collected. Results: In our series, there were no intraoperative or perioperative mortalities. Procedure types included coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve replacement and repair, or combined CABG and valve procedures. Median (interquartile range) cross-clamp time was 100 (88 to 131) minutes, cardiopulmonary bypass duration was 133 (114 to 176) minutes, and length of stay was 6 (4 to 8) days. None of the patients returned to the operating room for hemorrhage, and there were no complications associated with the repair of a coronary sinus injury when using the pericardial roof technique. Conclusions: Coronary sinus injuries can result in difficult to manage perioperative bleeding and potentially lethal consequences from cardiac manipulation. Our series supports the pericardial roof technique as an effective solution to a challenging intraoperative complication.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 13
Ahmed Ashry ◽  
Hieder Al-Shami ◽  
Medhat Gamal ◽  
Ahmed M Salah

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) evacuation by two burr-hole craniostomies under local versus general anesthesia (GA) in elderly patients over 70 years. Methods: This retrospective study included 45 patients with CSDH aged over 70 years old treated from March 2018 to April 2020. The cases were subdivided into Group A (n = 22) that underwent evacuation under local anesthesia and Group B (n = 23) that was treated under GA. Patients’ demographics and history of comorbidities were recorded. Variables including pre- and post-operative neurological status and Markwalder’s score, complication rate, operative time, and length of hospital stay were evaluated. Results: The mean and standard deviation of patients’ age of groups (A) and (B) were 74.3 ± 2.5 and 73.2 ± 1.7 years, respectively. Postoperative Glasgow Coma Scale of group (A) was statistically higher than Group B at postoperative day 1 (P = 0.01). Operative time was statistically shorter in Group A than B (P < 0.0001). The length of hospital stay was found to be longer in group (B) than (A) (P = 0.0001). The complication rate was found to be higher in group (B) than (A) (P = 0.044). Conclusion: Evacuation of CSDH under local anesthesia in elderly patients over 70 years is effective, safe, and economic with less complication rate than the traditional technique with GA.

2022 ◽  
pp. 175857322110654
Hasani W Swindell ◽  
Alirio J deMeireles ◽  
Jack R Zhong ◽  
Elise C. Bixby ◽  
Bryan M Saltzman ◽  

Background There is minimal work defining the economic impact of resident participation in shoulder arthroplasty. Thus, this study quantified the opportunity cost of resident participation in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and hemiarthroplasty (HA) by determining differences in operative time, relative value units (RVUs)/hour, and RVUs/case. Methods A retrospective analysis of shoulder arthroplasty procedures were identified from the ACS-NSQIP database from 2006 to 2014 using CPT codes. Demographic, comorbidity, preoperative laboratory data and surgical procedure were used to develop matched cohorts. Mean differences in operative time, RVUs/case and RVUs/hour between attending-only (AO) cases and cases with resident involvement (RI) were examined. Cost analysis was performed to identify differences in RVUs generated per hour in dollars/case. Results A total of 1786 AO and 1102 RI cases were identified. With the exception of PGY-3 and PGY-4 cases, RI cases had lower mean operative times compared to AO cases. The cost of RI was highest for PGY-3 ($199.87 per case) and PGY-4 ($9 .2 9) residents with all other postgraduate years providing a cost reduction. Discussion Involvement of residents was associated with shorter operative times leading to a savings of $29.64 per case. Involvement of intermediate-level (PGY-3) residents were associated with increased costs that ultimately decreased as residents became more senior.

Ahmed Orabi ◽  
Mina M G Youssef ◽  
Tamer M. Manie ◽  
Mohamed Shaalan ◽  
Tarek Hashem

Abstract Background Breast conserving surgery (BCS) has been a standard procedure for the treatment of breast cancer instead of mastectomy whenever possible. Lateral chest wall perforator flaps are one of the volume replacement techniques that participate in increasing the rate of BCS especially in small- to moderate-sized breasts with good cosmetic outcome. In this study, we tried to evaluate the outcome of those flaps as an oncoplastic procedure instead of the conventional flaps. Methods This study included 26 patients who underwent partial mastectomy with immediate reconstruction using lateral chest wall perforator flaps in the period from October 2019 to November 2020. The operative time, techniques, and complications were recorded. The cosmetic outcome was assessed 3 months post-radiation therapy through a questionnaire and photographic assessment. Results Lateral intercostal artery perforator (LICAP), lateral thoracic artery perforator (LTAP) and combined flaps were performed in 24, 1, and 1 patients, respectively. The mean operative time was 129.6 ± 13.2 min. The flap length ranged from 10 to 20 cm and its width from 5 to 9 cm. Overall patients’ satisfaction was observed to be 88.5% as either excellent or good and the photographic assessment was 96.2% as either excellent or good. Conclusions Lateral chest wall perforator flaps are reliable and safe option for partial breast reconstruction with an acceptable aesthetic outcome. In the era of oncoplastic breast surgery, they deserve to gain attention especially with the advantages of some modifications added to the classic technique.

Thomas Theologou ◽  
Depaksi Tare ◽  
Sara Clivio ◽  
Demertzis S ◽  
Enrico Ferrari

Redo aortic valve surgery for failure of a previously implanted valve is always challenging. In case of small-sized implanted valves, the use of a balloon-expanding Sapien-3 valve can enhance the final effective orifice area, avoid complex annulus enlargement techniques, and can reduce operative time and morbidities. We describe a case where after explanting a failed 19mm St. Jude mechanical aortic valve and further deployment of a 23mm Sapien-3 valve, the left coronary ostia was obstructed by the skirt of the transcatheter prosthesis. After careful removal of a little part of the skirt, we were able to restore the coronary flow and the patient had a favorable outcome.

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