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Zulqarnain Nazir ◽  
Khurram Shahzad ◽  
Muhammad Kamran Malik ◽  
Waheed Anwar ◽  
Imran Sarwar Bajwa ◽  

Authorship attribution refers to examining the writing style of authors to determine the likelihood of the original author of a document from a given set of potential authors. Due to the wide range of authorship attribution applications, a plethora of studies have been conducted for various Western, as well as Asian, languages. However, authorship attribution research in the Urdu language has just begun, although Urdu is widely acknowledged as a prominent South Asian language. Furthermore, the existing studies on authorship attribution in Urdu have addressed a considerably easier problem of having less than 20 candidate authors, which is far from the real-world settings. Therefore, the findings from these studies may not be applicable to the real-world settings. To that end, we have made three key contributions: First, we have developed a large authorship attribution corpus for Urdu, which is a low-resource language. The corpus is composed of over 2.6 million tokens and 21,938 news articles by 94 authors, which makes it a closer substitute to the real-world settings. Second, we have analyzed hundreds of stylometry features used in the literature to identify 194 features that are applicable to the Urdu language and developed a taxonomy of these features. Finally, we have performed 66 experiments using two heterogeneous datasets to evaluate the effectiveness of four traditional and three deep learning techniques. The experimental results show the following: (a) Our developed corpus is many folds larger than the existing corpora, and it is more challenging than its counterparts for the authorship attribution task, and (b) Convolutional Neutral Networks is the most effective technique, as it achieved a nearly perfect F1 score of 0.989 for an existing corpus and 0.910 for our newly developed corpus.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-34
Andrea Arcuri ◽  
Juan P. Galeotti

Search-based software testing (SBST) has been shown to be an effective technique to generate test cases automatically. Its effectiveness strongly depends on the guidance of the fitness function. Unfortunately, a common issue in SBST is the so-called flag problem , where the fitness landscape presents a plateau that provides no guidance to the search. In this article, we provide a series of novel testability transformations aimed at providing guidance in the context of commonly used API calls (e.g., strings that need to be converted into valid date/time objects). We also provide specific transformations aimed at helping the testing of REST Web Services. We implemented our novel techniques as an extension to EvoMaster , an SBST tool that generates system-level test cases. Experiments on nine open-source REST web services, as well as an industrial web service, show that our novel techniques improve performance significantly.

Shane P. Smith ◽  
Charlotte R. Spear ◽  
Patrick E. Ryan ◽  
David M. Stout ◽  
Samuel J. Youssef ◽  

Objective: Coronary sinus injury related to the use of a retrograde cardioplegia catheter is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication with mortality reported as high as 20%. We present a series of iatrogenic coronary sinus injuries as well as an effective method of repair without any ensuing mortality. Methods: There were 3,004 cases that utilized retrograde cardioplegia at our institution from 2007 to 2018. Of these, 15 patients suffered a coronary sinus injury, an incidence of 0.49%. A pericardial roof repair was performed in 14 cases in which autologous pericardium was sutured circumferentially to normal epicardium around the injury with purified bovine serum albumin and glutaraldehyde injected into the newly created space as a sealant. Incidence of perioperative morbidity and mortality, operative time, and length of stay were collected. Results: In our series, there were no intraoperative or perioperative mortalities. Procedure types included coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve replacement and repair, or combined CABG and valve procedures. Median (interquartile range) cross-clamp time was 100 (88 to 131) minutes, cardiopulmonary bypass duration was 133 (114 to 176) minutes, and length of stay was 6 (4 to 8) days. None of the patients returned to the operating room for hemorrhage, and there were no complications associated with the repair of a coronary sinus injury when using the pericardial roof technique. Conclusions: Coronary sinus injuries can result in difficult to manage perioperative bleeding and potentially lethal consequences from cardiac manipulation. Our series supports the pericardial roof technique as an effective solution to a challenging intraoperative complication.

Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 139
Ki-Hong Kim ◽  
Won-Beom Lee ◽  
Tae-Hwan Kim ◽  
Seok-Won Son

Potential-controlled nitriding is an effective technique for enhancing the life of steel molds and dies by improving their surface hardness and toughness against fatigue damage. In this study, the effect of the nitriding potential on the microstructure and fracture toughness of nitrided AISI D2 steels was investigated. The nitrided layers were characterized by microhardness measurements, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and their phases were identified by X-ray and electron backscatter diffraction. As the nitriding potential increased to 2.0 atm−1/2, an increase in the surface hardness and fracture toughness was observed with the growth of the compound layer. However, both the surface hardness and the fracture toughness decreased at the higher nitriding potential of 5.0 atm−1/2 owing to the increased porosity in the compound layers, which mainly consist of the ε (Fe2–3N) phase. Additionally, by observing crack growth behavior, the fracture toughness was analyzed considering the material characteristics of the diffusion and compound layers. The fracture toughness was influenced by the location of the initial Palmqvist cracks due to the localized plastic deformation of the diffusion layer and increased crack length due to the porous compound layer.

2022 ◽  
pp. 002215542110649
Joshua T. Dodge ◽  
Andrew D. Doyle ◽  
Ana C. Costa-da-Silva ◽  
Christopher T. Hogden ◽  
Eva Mezey ◽  

Multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) is an effective technique for the maximal visualization of multiple target proteins in situ. This powerful tool is mainly limited by the spectral overlap of the currently available synthetic fluorescent dyes. The fluorescence excitation wavelengths ranging between 405 and 488 nm are rarely used in mIF imaging and serve as a logical additional slot for a fluorescent probe. In the present study, we demonstrate that the addition of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroaniline to Atto 465 NHS ester, creating Atto 465-pentafluoroaniline (Atto 465-p), generates a bright nuclear stain in the violet-blue region of the visible spectrum. This allows the 405 nm excitation and emission, classically used for nuclear counterstains, to be used for the detection of another target protein. This increases the flexibility of the mIF panel and, with appropriate staining and microscopy, enables the quantitative analysis of at least six targets in one tissue section. (J Histochem Cytochem XX: XXX–XXX, XXXX)

Nguyen Thai Minh ◽  
Le Quang Thien ◽  
Nguyen Sinh Hien ◽  
Nguyen Hoang Ha

Background: For aortic arch surgery, the improvement of anastomosis technique, and the improvement of using self-suture branching artificial vessels have shortened the time and reduced the cost of surgery. The study aimed to evaluate the improved results of using self-suture branched artificial vessels in aortic arch surgery. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study of the use of self-suture branching artificial vessels in aortic arch surgery at Hanoi Heart Hospital from October 2018 to May 2021. Results: There were 33 cases of aortic arch replacement using self-suture branching artificial vessels. The rate of postoperative bleeding was 6.06%. The rate of artificial vessel infection is 0%. Conclusion: Using self-suture branching artificial vessels in aortic arch surgery is a safe and effective technique.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 14
Inês Francisco ◽  
Raquel Travassos ◽  
Catarina Nunes ◽  
Madalena Ribeiro ◽  
Filipa Marques ◽  

Background: There has been an increase in demand for orthodontic treatment within the adult population, who likely receive restorative treatments using ceramic structures. The current state of the art regarding the most effective method to achieve an appropriate bond strength of brackets on ceramic surfaces isn’t consensual. This systematic review aims to compare the available surface treatments to ceramics and determine the one that allows to obtain the best bond strength. Methods: This systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines and the PICO methodology was used, with the question “What is the most effective technique for bonding brackets on ceramic crowns or veneers?”. The research was carried out in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. In vitro and ex vivo studies were included. The methodological quality was evaluated using the guidelines for reporting of preclinical studies on dental materials by Faggion Jr. Results: A total of 655 articles searched in various databases were initially scrutinized. Sevety one articles were chosen for quality analysis. The risk of bias was considered medium to high in most studies. The use of hydrofluoric acid (HF), silane and laser afforded the overall best results. HF and HF plus laser achieved significantly highest bond strength scores in felsdphatic porcelain, while laser was the best treatment in lithium disilicate ceramics. Conclusions: The most effective technique for bonding brackets on ceramic is dependent on the type of ceramic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (01) ◽  
pp. E74-E81
Saurabh Chandan ◽  
Antonio Facciorusso ◽  
Daryl Ramai ◽  
Smit Deliwala ◽  
Babu P. Mohan ◽  

Abstract Background and study aims Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) > 20 mm in size can be challenging. Piecemeal EMR of these lesions results in high rates of adenoma recurrence at first surveillance colonoscopy (SC1). Snare tip soft coagulation (STSC) of post resection margins is a safe and effective technique to prevent adenoma recurrence. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this technique. Patients and methods Multiple databases were searched through April 2021 for studies that reported on outcomes of post EMR STSC for LSTs > 20 mm in size. Meta-analysis was performed to determine pooled odds of adenoma recurrence as well as pooled proportion of adverse events including intraprocedural and delayed bleeding as well as intraprocedural perforation events. Results Six studies including two randomized controlled trials (RCT) and four cohort studies with 2122 patients were included in the final analysis. Overall pooled odds of adenoma recurrence at SC1 with post EMR STSC compared to no STSC was 0.27 (95 % 0.18–0.42; I2 = 0 %), P < 0.001. Pooled rate of adenoma recurrence at SC1 in post EMR STSC cohort was 6 %. Rates of intraprocedural bleeding, delayed bleeding and intraprocedural perforation were 10.3 %, 6.5 % and 2 % respectively. Conclusions Our results show that thermal ablation of resection margins with STSC in LSTs > 20 mm is a safe and effective technique in reducing the incidence of adenoma recurrence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
Fabiola Fernandes Junior ◽  
Luanda Bruno Pinheiro ◽  
Milena Siciliano Nascimento ◽  
Cristiane do Prado

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe, for the first time in the pediatric population, the use of an effective technique to mobilize secretion in a patient whose disease imposes many care limitations. Case description: 2-year-old infant with Epidermolysis Bullosa, dependent on mechanical ventilation after cardiorespiratory arrest. Infant evolved with atelectasis in the right upper lobe with restriction to all manual secretion mobilization techniques due to the risk of worsening skin lesions. We opted for tracheal aspiration in a closed system combined with expiratory pause, a technique only described in adult patients so far. Comments: This case report is the first to use this technique in a pediatric patient. The use of expiratory pause combined with tracheal aspiration not only optimized the mobilization of secretion, but it was also a safe tool for reversing atelectasis. Our case report brings an important result because it increases the possibilities of managing pediatric patients admitted to intensive care units, especially in situations of absolute contraindication for chest maneuvers.

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