Semantic Reasoning
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 12082
Ze Bian ◽  
Shijian Luo ◽  
Fei Zheng ◽  
Liuyu Wang ◽  
Ping Shan

Bionic reasoning is a significant process in product biologically inspired design (BID), in which designers search for creatures and products that are matched for design. Several studies have tried to assist designers in bionic reasoning, but there are still limits. Designers’ bionic reasoning thinking in product BID is vague, and there is a lack of fuzzy semantic search methods at the sentence level. This study tries to assist designers’ bionic semantic reasoning in product BID. First, experiments were conducted to determine the designer’s bionic reasoning thinking in top-down and bottom-up processes. Bionic mapping relationships, including affective perception, form, function, material, and environment, were obtained. Second, the bidirectional encoder representations from transformers (BERT) pretraining model was used to calculate the semantic similarity of product description sentences and biological sentences so that designers could choose the high-ranked results to finish bionic reasoning. Finally, we used a product BID example to show the bionic semantic reasoning process and verify the feasibility of the method.

Karen A. Fallon ◽  
Beth Lawrence ◽  
Deena Seifert

Purpose: Increasing the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge is critical for academic success, particularly for middle and high school students who face ever-increasing linguistic demands with each grade advancement. Implementing effective vocabulary instruction methods that integrate with classroom curricula remains of critical clinical importance for struggling students. This clinical focus article addresses the challenge of contextual vocabulary instruction by presenting semantic reasoning, an evidence-based instructional approach that utilizes both cognitive and linguistic processes. Semantic reasoning pairs critical-thinking, multiple visual examples, and language-based instruction to teach vocabulary words. Conclusions: This article provides a description of semantic reasoning as an evidence-based vocabulary teaching approach that can be used in contextualized language intervention, particularly with adolescent students. Step-by-step guides for preparing and implementing contextualized vocabulary lessons that use semantic reasoning are provided in an effort to promote clinical application of this approach.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (21) ◽  
pp. 10371
Pieter Moens ◽  
Sander Vanden Hautte ◽  
Dieter De Paepe ◽  
Bram Steenwinckel ◽  
Stijn Verstichel ◽  

Manufacturers can plan predictive maintenance by remotely monitoring their assets. However, to extract the necessary insights from monitoring data, they often lack sufficiently large datasets that are labeled by human experts. We suggest combining knowledge-driven and unsupervised data-driven approaches to tackle this issue. Additionally, we present a dynamic dashboard that automatically visualizes detected events using semantic reasoning, assisting experts in the revision and correction of event labels. Captured label corrections are immediately fed back to the adaptive event detectors, improving their performance. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to demonstrate the synergy of knowledge-driven detectors, data-driven detectors and automatic dashboards capturing feedback. This synergy allows a transition from detecting only unlabeled events, such as anomalies, at the start to detecting labeled events, such as faults, with meaningful descriptions. We demonstrate all work using a ventilation unit monitoring use case. This approach enables manufacturers to collect labeled data for refining event classification techniques with reduced human labeling effort.

Computers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 116
Michail Feidakis ◽  
Christos Chatzigeorgiou ◽  
Christina Karamperi ◽  
Lazaros Giannakos ◽  
Vasileios-Rafail Xefteris ◽  

This paper presents “DESMOS”, a novel ecosystem for the interconnection of smart infrastructures, mobile and wearable devices, and applications, to provide a secure environment for visitors and tourists. The presented solution brings together state-of-the-art IoT technologies, crowdsourcing, localization through BLE, and semantic reasoning, following a privacy and security-by-design approach to ensure data anonymization and protection. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, the solution was tested, validated, and evaluated via two pilots in almost real settings—involving a fewer density of people than planned—in Trikala, Thessaly, Greece. The results and findings support that the presented solutions can provide successful emergency reporting, crowdsourcing, and localization via BLE. However, these results also prompt for improvements in the user interface expressiveness, the application’s effectiveness and accuracy, as well as evaluation in real, overcrowded conditions. The main contribution of this paper is to report on the progress made and to showcase how all these technological solutions can be integrated and applied in realistic and practical scenarios, for the safety and privacy of visitors and tourists.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Jinhai Li ◽  
Yunlei Ma ◽  
Xiang Zhan ◽  
Jiaming Pei

With the development of mobile network technology and the popularization of mobile terminals, traditional information recommendation systems are gradually changing in the direction of real-time and mobile information recommendation. Information recommendation brings the problem of user contextual sensitivity within the mobile environment. For this problem, first, this paper constructs a domain ontology, which is applicable to the contextual semantic reasoning model. Second, based on the “5W + 1H” method, this paper constructs a context pedigree of the mobile environment using a model framework of a domain ontology. The contextual factors of the mobile environment are divided into six categories: the What-object context, the Where-place context, the When-time context, the Who-subject context, the Why-reason context, and the How-effect context. Then, considering the degree of influence of each contextual factor from the mobile context pedigree to the user is different, this paper uses contextual conditional entropy to calculate the contextual weight of each contextual attribute in the recommendation process. Based on this, a contextual semantic reasoning model based on a domain ontology is constructed. Finally, based on the open dataset provided by GroupLens, this paper verifies the validity and efficiency of the model through a simulation experiment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (17) ◽  
pp. 7945
Yu Dai ◽  
Yufan Fu ◽  
Lei Yang

To address the problem of poor semantic reasoning of models in multiple-choice Chinese machine reading comprehension (MRC), this paper proposes an MRC model incorporating multi-granularity semantic reasoning. In this work, we firstly encode articles, questions and candidates to extract global reasoning information; secondly, we use multiple convolution kernels of different sizes to convolve and maximize pooling of the BERT-encoded articles, questions and candidates to extract local semantic reasoning information of different granularities; we then fuse the global information with the local multi-granularity information and use it to make an answer selection. The proposed model can combine the learned multi-granularity semantic information for reasoning, solving the problem of poor semantic reasoning ability of the model, and thus can improve the reasoning ability of machine reading comprehension. The experiments show that the proposed model achieves better performance on the C3 dataset than the benchmark model in semantic reasoning, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed model in semantic reasoning.

Kartik Goel ◽  
Charu Gupta ◽  
Ria Rawal ◽  
Prateek Agrawal ◽  
Vishu Madaan

COVID-19 has affected people in nearly 180 countries worldwide. This paper presents a novel and improved Semantic Web-based approach for implementing the disease pattern of COVID-19. Semantics gives meaning to words and defines the purpose of words in a sentence. Previous ontology approaches revolved around syntactic methods. In this paper, semantics gives due priority to understand the nature and meaning of the underlying text. The proposed approach, FaD-CODS, focuses on a specific application of fake news detection. The formal definition is given by depiction of knowledge patterns using semantic reasoning. The proposed approach based on fake news detection uses description logic for semantic reasoning. FaD-CODS will affect decision making in medicine and healthcare. Further, the state-of-the-art method performs best for semantic text incorporated in the model. FaD-CODS used a reasoning tool, RACER, to check the consistency of the collected study. Further, the reasoning tool performance is critically analyzed to determine the conflicts between a myth and fact.

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