different temperatures
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Jéssica L. O. Brasileiro ◽  
Rossana M. F. de Figueirêdo ◽  
Alexandre J. de M. Queiroz ◽  
Regilane M. Feitosa

ABSTRACT Fruit pulps undergo temperature variations during processing, leading to viscosity changes. This study aimed to analyse the rheological behaviour of macaíba pulp at different temperatures (10 to 50 ºC, with 5 ºC increments) and speeds (2.5 to 200 rpm, totalling 17 speeds). Experimental measurements were performed in a Brookfield viscometer, fitting the Ostwald-de-Waele, Mizrahi-Berk, Herschel-Bulkley, and Casson models to the experimental data of shear stress as a function of shear rate. Among the models used, the Mizrahi-Berk model (R² > 0.9656 and average percentage deviation - P ≤ 4.1%) was found to best fit the rheogram data. Macaíba pulp exhibited a non-newtonian behaviour and was characterised as pseudoplastic. It showed fluid behaviour indexes below unity under the studied conditions, with decreases in apparent viscosity as temperature and shear rate increased. Such behaviour could be described by the Arrhenius equation. The Mizrahi-Berk and Falguera-Ibarz models (R² > 0.99 and P ≤ 10%) best fitted the data and were used to represent the viscosity behaviour of macaíba pulp. The activation energy values of macaíba pulp ranged between 17.53 and 25.37 kJ mol-1, showing a rheological behaviour like other fruit pulps.

2022 ◽  
Vol 896 ◽  
pp. 163157
Chong Dong ◽  
Min Shang ◽  
Haoran Ma ◽  
Yunpeng Wang ◽  
Xiaogan Li ◽  

Casey terHorst ◽  
Mary-Alice Coffroth

In many cases, understanding species level responses to climate change requires understanding variation among individuals in response to such change. For species with strong symbiotic relationships, such as many coral reef species, genetic variation in symbiont responses to temperature may affect the response to increased ocean temperatures. To assess variation among symbiont genotypes, we examined the population dynamics and physiological responses of genotypes of Breviolum antillogorgium in response to increased temperature. We found broad temperature tolerance across genotypes, with all genotypes showing positive growth at 26, 30, and 32 C. Genotypes differed in the magnitude of the response of growth rate and carrying capacity to increasing temperature, suggesting that natural selection could favor different genotypes at different temperatures. However, the historical temperature at which genotypes were reared was not a good predictor of temperature response, suggesting a lack of adaptation to temperature over hundreds of generations. We found increased photosynthetic rates and decreased respiration rates with increasing temperature, and differences in physiology among genotypes, but found no significant differences in the response of different genotypes to temperature. In species with such broad thermal tolerance, selection experiments on symbionts outside of the host may not yield results sufficient for evolutionary rescue from climate change.

2022 ◽  
Vol 906 ◽  
pp. 69-76
Tigran Petrosyan

In order to study the effect of temperature changes on the dissipative properties of materials, two approaches are used. The first approach implies introducing some temperature function under the sign of the integral in the heredity theory equation and simultaneously taking into account the dependence of the elastic modulus on temperature. As a result, based on experimental data on the thermal creep of soils, the expression for determining the hysteresis energy losses under the periodic voltage changes was obtained depending on temperature changes.According to the second approach, the expression for determining the hysteresis energy losses under isothermal conditions at different temperatures was obtained by introducing into the heredity theory equation an approximation of the experimental dependences of instantaneous deformation and temperature creep parameters for steel Kh18 N10T.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 451
Shijun Xie ◽  
Zhou Mu ◽  
Weidong Ding ◽  
Zhenbo Wan ◽  
Shaochun Su ◽  

The on-site measurement of transient voltages is of great significance in analyzing the fault cause of power systems and optimizing the insulation coordination of power equipment. Conventional voltage transformers normally have a narrow bandwidth and are unable to accurately measure various transient voltages in power systems. In this paper, a wideband parallel resistive–capacitive voltage divider is developed, which can be used for online monitoring of transient voltages in a 220 kV power grid. The structures of the high-voltage and low-voltage arms were designed. The internal electric field distribution of the high-voltage arm was analyzed. The influence factors and improvement techniques of the upper frequency limit were studied. The parameters of the elements of the divider were determined. The voltage withstand performances and scale factors under lightning impulses and AC and DC voltages, the temperature stabilities of scale factors and the step response and bandwidth of the developed voltage divider were tested. The results show that the deviations of the scale factors under various voltage waveforms and different temperatures ranging from −20 to 40 °C are within 3%. The withstand voltage meets the relevant requirements specified in IEC60071-1-2011. The step response 10~90% rise time is approximately 29 ns, and the 3 dB bandwidth covers the range of DC to 10 MHz.

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