Proximal Humerus
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2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 265-271
Dipit Sahu ◽  
Arun Gupta ◽  
Samarjit S. Bansal

Four patients with shoulder problems that were traumatic in etiology presented to us with delays in seeking care ranging from 6 to 12 weeks due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown. The care of three cases (a 3-month-old neglected anterior shoulder dislocation with a greater tuberosity fracture in a 30-year old man, a 3-month-old neglected anterior shoulder dislocation in a 17-year old boy, and a 2-month-old neglected greater tuberosity fracture in a 31-year old man) was delayed due to the lockdown and the ensuing travel restrictions, while that of one case (a 6-week-old fracture–dislocation of the proximal humerus in a 55-year-old woman) was delayed because the patient was undergoing treatment for COVID-19 at the time of injury. This report intends to present the exceptional circumstances around these cases. The unique treatment challenges and their outcomes are also described to advise the surgeons of the nuances and difficulties in treating these injuries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Laurent Audigé ◽  
Stig Brorson ◽  
Holger Durchholz ◽  
Simon Lambert ◽  
Fabrizio Moro ◽  

Abstract Background Proximal humerus fracture (PHF) complications, whether following surgery or nonoperative management, require standardization of definitions and documentation for consistent reporting. We aimed to define an international consensus core event set (CES) of clinically-relevant unfavorable events of PHF to be documented in clinical routine practice and research. Methods A Delphi exercise was implemented with an international panel of experienced shoulder trauma surgeons selected by survey invitation of AO Trauma members. An organized list of PHF events after nonoperative or operative management was developed and reviewed by panel members using on-line surveys. The proposed core set was revised regarding event groups along with definitions, specifications and timing of occurrence. Consensus was reached with at least a two-third agreement. Results The PHF consensus panel was composed of 231 clinicians worldwide who responded to at least one of two completed surveys. There was 93% final agreement about three intraoperative local event groups (device, osteochondral, soft tissue). Postoperative or nonoperative event terms and definitions organized into eight groups (device, osteochondral, shoulder instability, fracture-related infection, peripheral neurological, vascular, superficial soft tissue, deep soft tissue) were approved with 96 to 98% agreement. The time period for documentation ranged from 30 days to 24 months after PHF treatment depending on the event group and specification. The resulting consensus was presented on a paper-based PHF CES documentation form. Conclusions International consensus was achieved on a core set of local unfavorable events of PHF to foster standardization of complication reporting in clinical research and register documentation. Trial registration Not applicable.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 19-21
Nicholas M Bertha ◽  
Adeshina Adeyemo ◽  
Kevin J Perry ◽  
Gary F Updegrove

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Baorui Xing ◽  
Yadi Zhang ◽  
Xiuxiu Hou ◽  
Yunmei Li ◽  
Guoliang Li ◽  

Abstract Introduction The purpose is based on anatomical basis, combined with three-dimensional measurement, to guide the clinical repositioning of proximal humeral fractures, select the appropriate pin entry point and angle, and simulate surgery. Methods 11 fresh cadaveric specimens were collected, the distance of the marked points around the shoulder joint was measured anatomically, and the vertical distance between the inferior border of the acromion and the superior border of the axillary nerve, the vertical distance between the apex of the humeral head and the superior border of the axillary nerve, the vertical distance between the inferior border of the acromion and the superior border of the anterior rotator humeral artery, and the vertical distance between the apex of the humeral head and the superior border of the anterior rotator humeral artery were marked on the 3D model based on the anatomical data to find the relative safety zone for pin placement. Results Contralateral data can be used to guide the repositioning and fixation of that side of the proximal humerus fracture, and uniform data cannot be used between male and female patients. For lateral pining, the distance of the inferior border of the acromion from the axillary nerve (5.90 ± 0.43) cm, range (5.3-6.9) cm, was selected for pining along the medial axis of the humeral head, close to the medial cervical cortex, and the pining angle was measured in the coronal plane (42.84 ± 2.45)°, range (37.02° ~ 46.31°), and in the sagittal plane (28.24 ± 2.25)°, range (19.22° ~ 28.51°). The pin was advanced laterally in front of the same level of the lateral approach point to form a cross-fixed support with the lateral pin, and the pin angle was measured in the coronal plane (36.14 ± 1.75)°, range (30.32° ~ 39.61°), and in the sagittal plane (28.64 ± 1.37)°, range (22.82° ~ 32.11°). Two pins were taken at the greater humeral tuberosity for fixation, with the proximal pin at an angle (159.26 ± 1.98) to the coronal surface of the humeral stem, range (155.79° ~ 165.08°), and the sagittal angle (161.76 ± 2.15)°, with the pin end between the superior surface of the humeral talus and the inferior surface of the humeral talus. The distal needle of the greater humeral tuberosity was parallel to the proximal approach trajectory, and the needle end was on the inferior surface of the humeral talus. Conclusion Based on the anatomical data, we can accurately identify the corresponding bony structures of the proximal humerus and mark the location of the pin on the 3D model for pin placement, which is simple and practical to meet the relevant individual parameters.

Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Ahmad Arieff Atan ◽  
Zamri Ab Rahman ◽  
Khairul Rizal Zayzan ◽  
Norhaslinda Bahaudin ◽  
Abdul Rauf Ahmad

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Ryan Cheng ◽  
Jay Moran ◽  
Samantha Smith ◽  
Don Li ◽  
Christopher A. Schneble ◽  

Case. We report an 11-year-old male who sustained a lesser tuberosity avulsion fracture of the proximal humerus upon making contact with a baseball during an at-bat. This injury was neglected for 14 months and was eventually detected by an axillary radiograph and subsequent MRI. He successfully underwent an open surgical repair and regained full range of motion and level of activity at 1-year follow-up. Conclusion. In pediatric baseball players, lesser tuberosity avulsion fractures may occur upon striking a baseball with a bat. Even after being neglected for several months, these injuries can be treated successfully with an open surgical repair.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0259646
Sam Razaeian ◽  
Said Askittou ◽  
Birgitt Wiese ◽  
Dafang Zhang ◽  
Afif Harb ◽  

Background The objective of this study was to investigate inter- and intraobserver reliability of the morphological Mutch classification for greater tuberosity (GT) fragments in consecutive proximal humerus fractures (PHF) regardless of the number of parts according to the Codman classification system for three different imaging modalities (plain radiographs, two-dimensional [2-D] computed tomography [CT], and reformatted, three-dimensional [3-D] CT reconstruction). Materials and methods One hundred thirty-eight consecutive PHF with GT involvement were identified between January 2018 and December 2018 in a supraregional Level 1 trauma center. GT morphology was classified by three blinded observers according to the morphological Mutch classification using the picture archiving and communication software Visage 7.1 (Visage Imaging Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Fleiss’ and Cohens’ kappa were assessed for inter- and intraobserver reliability. Strength of agreement for kappa (k) values was interpreted according to the Landis and Koch benchmark scale. Results In cases of isolated GT fractures (n = 24), the morphological Mutch classification achieved consistently substantial values for interobserver reliability (radiograph: k = 0.63; 2-D CT: k = 0.75; 3-D CT: k = 0.77). Moreover, use of advanced imaging (2-D and 3-D CT) tends to increase reliability. Consistently substantial mean values were found for intraobserver agreement (radiograph: Ø k = 0.72; 2-D CT: Ø k = 0.8; 3-D CT: Ø k = 0.76). In cases of multi-part PHF with GT involvement (n = 114), interobserver agreement was only slight to fair regardless of imaging modality (radiograph: k = 0.3; 2-D CT: k = 0.17; 3-D CT: k = 0.05). Intraobserver agreement achieved fair to moderate mean values (radiograph: Ø k = 0.56; 2-D CT: Ø k = 0.61; 3-D CT: Ø k = 0.33). Conclusion The morphological Mutch classification remains a reliable classification for isolated GT fractures, even with 2-D or 3-D CT imaging. Usage of these advanced imaging modalities tends to increase interobserver reliability. However, its reliability for multi-part fractures with GT involvement is limited. A simple and reliable classification is missing for this fracture entity.

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