The poor outcome of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is associated with systemic hyperinflammatory response and immunopathology. Although inflammasome and oxidative stress have independently been implicated in COVID-19, it is poorly understood whether these two pathways cooperatively contribute to disease severity. Herein, we found an enrichment of CD14highCD16− monocytes displaying inflammasome activation evidenced by caspase-1/ASC-speck formation in severe COVID-19 patients when compared to mild ones and healthy controls, respectively. Those cells also showed aberrant levels of mitochondrial superoxide and lipid peroxidation, both hallmarks of the oxidative stress response, which strongly correlated with caspase-1 activity. In addition, we found that NLRP3 inflammasome-derived IL-1β secretion by SARS-CoV-2-exposed monocytes in vitro was partially dependent on lipid peroxidation. Importantly, altered inflammasome and stress responses persisted after short-term patient recovery. Collectively, our findings suggest oxidative stress/NLRP3 signaling pathway as a potential target for host-directed therapy to mitigate early COVID-19 hyperinflammation and also its long-term outcomes.
Background: Sparse study of large sample size are available on patients with Wellens’ syndrome. We sought to assess the current incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation and long-term outcomes of this population. Methods: Among a total of 3528 patients with ACS underwent angioplasty from 2017 to 2019 in our center, 2127 NSTE-ACS patients with culprit vessel of LAD were enrolled in this study. According to electrocardiographic criteria, they were divided into Wellens’ group (n = 200) and non-Wellens’ group (n =1927). The primary endpoint was cardiac death; the secondary endpoint was MACCE, a composite of all-cause death, cardiac death, recurrent myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, heart failure and stroke. Results: The incidence of Wellens’ syndrome was 5.7% (200 of 3528) in all the ACS patients. Wellens’ syndrome was more often manifested as NSTEMI (69% vs 17.5%, P＜0.001). Percent of preexisting coronary heart disease (39.6% vs 23%) and previous PCI (19.5% vs 9%) were significantly higher in the non-Wellens’ group than in Wellens’ group (all P<0.001). More importantly, the proportion of early PCI was higher in Wellens’ group (68% vs 59.3%, P=0.017). At a median follow-up of 24 months, Wellens’ syndrome was not a factor that affects the prognosis of MACCE (P=0.05) and cardiac death (P=0.188). Conclusions: In patients with NSTE-ACS, Wellens’ syndrome does not affect the prognosis. The presence of age≥65years, diabetes, NSTEMI, eGFR< 60ml/min and left main disease were associated with an incidence of cardiac death. Early recognition and aggressive intervention are critical as they may help to attenuate adverse outcomes.
Complete surgical removal of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) represents the only chance of long-term cure. In this study, we compared the long-term outcomes of ACC patients depending on whether they had adrenal surgery performed in a high-volume (HVC) or in a low-volume (LVC) center. This retrospective study included 49 patients from the Croatian ACC Registry with the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) stage I–III ACC, of which 35 underwent surgery in a HVC whereas 14 of them were operated in one of the LVCs. Patients operated in the LVCs had a significantly higher rate of ACC recurrence (57.1% vs. 22.9%; p = 0.02). Accordingly, RFS was significantly longer in patients operated on in HVC (p = 0.04). The difference in RFS remained significant after controlling for age, gender, tumor size, Ki-67 index, Weiss score, and type of surgery (HR 4.55; 95% CI 1.16–17.88; p = 0.03). In addition, there is a tendency towards longer DSS in patients in the HVC group compared to those in the LVC group (p = 0.05). These results point to the centralization of adrenal surgery as a key prerequisite for improving the outcomes of ACC patients.
The delayed percentage attenuation ratio (DPAR) was recently identified as a novel predictor of an early complete response in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). In this study, we aimed to validate the role of DPAR as a predictive biomarker for short-, mid-, and long-term outcomes after TACE.
We retrospectively reviewed laboratory and imaging data for 103 treatment-naïve patients undergoing initial TACE treatment at our tertiary care center between January 2016 and November 2020. DPAR and other washin and washout indices were quantified in the triphasic computed tomography performed before the initial TACE. The correlation of DPAR and radiologic response was investigated. Furthermore, the influence of DPAR on the 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month survival rates and the median overall survival (OS) was compared to other established washout indices and estimates of tumor burden and remnant liver function.
The DPAR was significantly of the target lesions (TLs) with objective response to TACE after the initial TACE session was significantly higher compared to patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) (125 (IQR 118–134) vs 110 (IQR 103–116), p < 0.001). Furthermore, the DPAR was significantly higher in patients who survived the first 6 months after TACE (122 vs. 115, p = 0.04). In addition, the number of patients with a DPAR > 120 was significantly higher in this group (n = 38 vs. n = 8; p = 0.03). However, no significant differences were observed in the 12-, 18-, and 24-month survival rates after the initial TACE. Regarding the median OS, no significant difference was observed for patients with a high DPAR compared to those with a low DPAR (18.7 months vs. 12.7 months, p = 0.260).
Our results confirm DPAR as the most relevant washout index for predicting the short-term outcome of patients with HCC undergoing TACE. However, DPAR and the other washout indices were not predictive of mid- and long-term outcomes.
Aim To determine the long-term outcomes of a cohort of complex patients with primary congenital glaucoma, aniridia and anterior segment dysgenesis. Methods Retrospective consecutive series between 1990–2021 in two UK tertiary centres: Guy's and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust and King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. We recorded the number and types of surgical and laser treatments along with preoperative and postoperative data, including intraocular pressures (IOP) and anti-glaucoma medications. Results A total of 41 eyes of 21 patients were included. Primary diagnoses were primary congenital glaucoma in 16 eyes (39.0%), aniridia in 14 eyes (34.2%), and anterior segment dysgenesis in 8 eyes (19.5%). Sixteen eyes (39.0%) had one or more glaucoma surgery or laser procedures for advanced glaucoma, and the long-term follow-up was 12.8 ± 3.6 years. There was a significant decrease in postoperative IOP (mmHg) at 3 months (16.5 ± 1.6; p = 0.0067), 6 months (18.7 ± 2.1; p = 0.0386), 12 months (18.6 ± 1.7; p = 0.0229), 3 years (14.7 ± 1.2; p = 0.0126), 5 years (15.5 ± 1.8; p = 0.0330) and 10 years (15.4 ± 2.3; p = 0.7780), compared to preoperatively (24.1 ± 2.6). Surgical success (complete and qualified) was 62.5%, 50.0%, 43.8%, 46.2%, 45.5% and 28.6% at 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 3 years, 5 years and 10 years, respectively. There was no significant change in the number of anti-glaucoma drugs postoperatively ( p > 0.05). Four eyes (25.0%) had postoperative complications (hyphaema, hypotony) that resolved after conservative management. Conclusions Surgical management of these complex eyes with advanced glaucoma is challenging. Overall, the cohort had good surgical outcomes with a significant decrease in IOP by 36.1% after long-term follow-up.