Successful control of massive hemorrhage in deep wounds with irregular shape and low elasticity still remains great challenges in the clinic. As the wound sites are usually at risk of bacterial infection, it is necessary to design an ideal hemostatic agent with rapid hemostasis and excellent antibacterial activity. In this study, we developed a light responsive hemostatic film for effective handling of liver bleeding with promising photodynamic therapy against S. aureus onnear infrared (NIR) irradiation. Based on silk fibroin, the film exhibited desirable biocompatibility and mechanical property as a hemostat tape. Significantly, the film tape achieved excellent tissue adhesion and hemostasis in vivo within 2 min of UV exposure, which would have a great potential as a multifunctional biomedical material in the field of tissue repair such as wound healing, bone repair, and nerve regeneration.
AbstractImmune response and new tissue formation are important aspects of tissue repair. However, only a single aspect is generally considered in previous biomedical interventions, and the synergistic effect is unclear. Here, a dual-effect coating with immobilized immunomodulatory metal ions (e.g., Zn2+) and osteoinductive growth factors (e.g., BMP-2 peptide) is designed via mussel adhesion-mediated ion coordination and molecular clicking strategy. Compared to the bare TiO2 group, Zn2+ can increase M2 macrophage recruitment by up to 92.5% in vivo and upregulate the expression of M2 cytokine IL-10 by 84.5%; while the dual-effect of Zn2+ and BMP-2 peptide can increase M2 macrophages recruitment by up to 124.7% in vivo and upregulate the expression of M2 cytokine IL-10 by 171%. These benefits eventually significantly enhance bone-implant mechanical fixation (203.3 N) and new bone ingrowth (82.1%) compared to the bare TiO2 (98.6 N and 45.1%, respectively). Taken together, the dual-effect coating can be utilized to synergistically modulate the osteoimmune microenvironment at the bone-implant interface, enhancing bone regeneration for successful implantation.
AbstractStem cells have self-renewal ability and multi-directional differentiation potential. They have tissue repair capabilities and are essential for maintaining the tissue homeostasis. The depletion of stem cells is closely related to the occurrence of body aging and aging-related diseases. Therefore, revealing the molecular mechanisms of stem cell aging will set new directions for the therapeutic application of stem cells, the study of aging mechanisms, and the prevention and treatment of aging-related diseases. This review comprehensively describes the molecular mechanisms related to stem cell aging and provides the basis for further investigations aimed at developing new anti-stem cell aging strategies and promoting the clinical application of stem cells.
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a multifactorial connective tissue disorder caused by damage to the supportive structures of the pelvic floor, leading to the descent of pelvic organs in the vagina. In women with POP, fibroblast function is disturbed or altered, which causes impaired collagen metabolism that affects the mechanical properties of the tissue. Ideal surgical repair, either native tissue repair or POP surgery using an implant, aims to create a functional pelvic floor that is load-bearing, activating fibroblasts to regulate collagen metabolism without creating fibrotic tissue. Fibroblast function plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of POP by directly affecting the connective tissue quality. On the other hand, fibroblasts determine the success of the POP treatment, as the fibroblast-to-(myo)fibroblast transition is the key event during wound healing and tissue repair. In this review, we aim to resolve the question of “cause and result” for the fibroblasts in the development and treatment of POP. This review may contribute to preventing the development and progress of anatomical abnormalities involved in POP and to optimizing surgical outcomes.
Our understanding of the functions of the IL-1 superfamily cytokine and damage-associated molecular pattern IL-33 continues to evolve with our understanding of homeostasis and immunity. The early findings that IL-33 is a potent driver of type 2 immune responses promoting parasite expulsion, but also inflammatory diseases like allergy and asthma, have been further supported. Yet, as the importance of a type 2 response in tissue repair and homeostasis has emerged, so has the fundamental importance of IL-33 to these processes. In this review, we outline an evolving understanding of IL-33 immunobiology, paying particular attention to how IL-33 directs a network of ST2+ regulatory T cells, reparative and regulatory macrophages, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells that are fundamental to tissue development, homeostasis, and repair. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology, Volume 40 is April 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Current medicine has only taken us so far in reducing disease and tissue damage. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are membranous nanostructures produced naturally by cells, have been hailed as a next-generation medicine. EVs deliver various biomolecules, including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, which can influence the behaviour of specific target cells. Since EVs not only mirror composition of their parent cells but also modify the recipient cells, they can be used in three key areas of medicine: regenerative medicine, disease detection and drug delivery. In this Review, we discuss the transformational and translational progress witnessed in EV-based medicine to date, focusing on two key elements: the mechanisms by which EVs aid tissue repair (for example, skin and bone tissue regeneration) and the potential of EVs to detect diseases at an early stage with high sensitivity and specificity (for example, detection of glioblastoma). Furthermore, we describe the progress and results of clinical trials of EVs and demonstrate the benefits of EVs when compared with traditional medicine, including cell therapy in regenerative medicine and solid biopsy in disease detection. Finally, we present the challenges, opportunities and regulatory framework confronting the clinical application of EV-based products.