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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 150-156
Xue-Jiao Wang ◽  
Yang Jiang ◽  
Yu-Yu Chou ◽  
Yan Luo ◽  

AIM: To identify and characterize the 100 most influential articles in the field of myopia over the last decades. METHODS: Articles on myopia published between January 1975 and March 2020 were searched through the Web of Science Core Collection database. Two independent authors reviewed and determined the 100 most cited articles. The characteristics of each eligible article were recorded, including authors, institutions, countries, journals, publication date, total citations (TCs), annual citations (ACs), research focus and article type. RESULTS: The top 100 most influential articles were published between 1983 and 2016, with 1999 as the most prolific year. The mean number of TCs was 288 (range: 193-537) and the mean number of ACs was 19 (range: 7-109). Treatment and epidemiology of myopia were the most important research focus. These articles were published in 21 journals led by Ophthalmology (29%) followed by Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (23%). The number of ACs for articles published in the last ten years was significantly higher than that for the other most-cited articles (44 vs 16, Mann-Whitney U test P<0.01). There is no difference in the number of TCs between original articles and review articles, while the number of ACs for review articles was significantly higher than that for original articles (22 vs 17, Mann-Whitney U test P<0.05). CONCLUSION: This bibliometric analysis can provide us with concise information about the development trend of research in the field of myopia in the past few decades, and provide an important reference for researchers to guide future research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
Monica B. Vela ◽  
Amarachi I. Erondu ◽  
Nichole A. Smith ◽  
Monica E. Peek ◽  
James N. Woodruff ◽  

Health care providers hold negative explicit and implicit biases against marginalized groups of people such as racial and ethnic minoritized populations. These biases permeate the health care system and affect patients via patient–clinician communication, clinical decision making, and institutionalized practices. Addressing bias remains a fundamental professional responsibility of those accountable for the health and wellness of our populations. Current interventions include instruction on the existence and harmful role of bias in perpetuating health disparities, as well as skills training for the management of bias. These interventions can raise awareness of provider bias and engage health care providers in establishing egalitarian goals for care delivery, but these changes are not sustained, and the interventions have not demonstrated change in behavior in the clinical or learning environment. Unfortunately, the efficacy of these interventions may be hampered by health care providers’ work and learning environments, which are rife with discriminatory practices that sustain the very biases US health care professions are seeking to diminish. We offer a conceptual model demonstrating that provider-level implicit bias interventions should be accompanied by interventions that systemically change structures inside and outside the health care system if the country is to succeed in influencing biases and reducing health inequities. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 43 is April 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
Julianne Holt-Lunstad

There is growing interest in and renewed support for prioritizing social factors in public health both in the USA and globally. While there are multiple widely recognized social determinants of health, indicators of social connectedness (e.g., social capital, social support, social isolation, loneliness) are often noticeably absent from the discourse. This article provides an organizing framework for conceptualizing social connection and summarizes the cumulative evidence supporting its relevance for health, including epidemiological associations, pathways, and biological mechanisms. This evidence points to several implications for prioritizing social connection within solutions across sectors, where public health work, initiatives, and research play a key role in addressing gaps. Therefore, this review proposes a systemic framework for cross-sector action to identify missed opportunities and guide future investigation, intervention, practice, and policy on promoting social connection and health for all. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 43 is April 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

2022 ◽  
pp. 026921552110679
Iura Gonzalez Nogueira Alves ◽  
Cássio Magalhães da Silva e Silva ◽  
Bruno Prata Martinez ◽  
Rodrigo Santos de Queiroz ◽  
Mansueto Gomes-Neto

Objective To determine the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on disabilities and activity limitation of individuals affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Data sources MEDLINE, PEDro database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and SciELO, were searched from inception until October 2021. Review methods Inclusion criteria were patients with COPD, randomized controlled trials comparing neuromuscular electrical stimulation alone or combined conventional pulmonary rehabilitation and neuromuscular electrical stimulation versus control or sham or pulmonary rehabilitation in disabilities and activity limitation in COPD. There were no mandatory language or publication date restrictions. Two reviewers selected studies independently. Weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 32 studies met the study criteria, including 1.269 participants. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improved exercise capacity (MD 1.10, 95% CI: 0.33, 1.86, N = 147), and muscle strength (0.53, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.87, N = 147) compared to sham group. Combined neuromuscular electrical stimulation and conventional rehabilitation improved exercise capacity (MD 34.28 meters, 95% CI: 6.84, 61.73, N = 262) compared to conventional rehabilitation alone. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions Neuromuscular electrical stimulation resulted in small improvement in disabilities and activity limitation (below the MCID) in COPD. Thus, the inclusion of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in rehabilitation programs must consider the cost Because of inadequate methodological conduction and reporting of methods, some studies were of low quality.

Lindsay M. LaFave ◽  
Rachel Savage ◽  
Jason D. Buenrostro

Cancer initiation is driven by the cooperation between genetic and epigenetic aberrations that disrupt gene regulatory programs critical to maintain specialized cellular functions. After initiation, cells acquire additional genetic and epigenetic alterations influenced by tumor-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms, which increase intratumoral heterogeneity, reshape the cell's underlying gene regulatory network, and promote cancer evolution. Furthermore, environmental or therapeutic insults drive the selection of heterogeneous cell states, with implications for cancer initiation, maintenance, and drug resistance. The advancement of single-cell genomics has begun to uncover the full repertoire of chromatin and gene expression states (cell states) that exist within individual tumors. These single-cell analyses suggest that cells diversify in their regulatory states upon transformation by co-opting damage-induced and nonlineage regulatory programs that can lead to epigenomic plasticity. Here, we review these recent studies related to regulatory state changes in cancer progression and highlight the growing single-cell epigenomics toolkit poised to address unresolved questions in the field. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Cancer Biology, Volume 6 is April 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
Arturo Casadevall

Invasive fungal diseases are rare in individuals with intact immunity. This, together with the fact that there are only a few species that account for most mycotic diseases, implies a remarkable natural resistance to pathogenic fungi. Mammalian immunity to fungi rests on two pillars, powerful immune mechanisms and elevated temperatures that create a thermal restriction zone for most fungal species. Conditions associated with increased susceptibility generally reflect major disturbances of immune function involving both the cellular and humoral innate and adaptive arms, which implies considerable redundancy in host defense mechanisms against fungi. In general, tissue fungal invasion is controlled through either neutrophil or granulomatous inflammation, depending on the fungal species. Neutrophils are critical against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. while macrophages are essential for controlling mycoses due to Cryptococcus spp., Histoplasma spp., and other fungi. The increasing number of immunocompromised patients together with climate change could significantly increase the prevalence of fungal diseases. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology, Volume 40 is April 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
Anna Bershteyn ◽  
Hae-Young Kim ◽  
R. Scott Braithwaite

Infectious disease transmission is a nonlinear process with complex, sometimes unintuitive dynamics. Modeling can transform information about a disease process and its parameters into quantitative projections that help decision makers compare public health response options. However, modelers face methodologic challenges, data challenges, and communication challenges, which are exacerbated under the time constraints of a public health emergency. We review methods, applications, challenges and opportunities for real-time infectious disease modeling during public health emergencies, with examples drawn from the two deadliest pandemics in recent history: HIV/AIDS and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 43 is April 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
Amanda M. Wilson ◽  
Darrah K. Sleeth ◽  
Camie Schaefer ◽  
Rachael M. Jones

Health care workers (HCWs) can acquire infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), from patients. Herein, COVID-19 is used with the source–pathway–receptor framework as an example to assess evidence for the role of aerosol transmission and indirect contact transmission of viral respiratory infectious diseases. Evidence for both routes is strong for COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses, but aerosol transmission is likely dominant for COVID-19. Key knowledge gaps about transmission processes and control strategies include the distribution of viable virus among respiratory aerosols of different sizes, the mechanisms and efficiency by which virus deposited on the facial mucous membrane moves to infection sites inside the body, and the performance of source controls such as face coverings and aerosol containment devices. To ensure that HCWs are adequately protected from infection, guidelines and regulations must be updated to reflect the evidence that respiratory viruses are transmitted via aerosols. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 43 is April 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

Steven W. Webster ◽  
Bethany Albertson

Contemporary politics is noteworthy for its emotional character. Emotions shape and, in turn, are elicited by partisan polarization, public opinion, and political attitudes. In this article, we outline recent work in the field of emotion and politics with an emphasis on the relationship between emotion and polarization, issue attitudes, information processing, and views on democratic governance. We also highlight a growing body of scholarship that examines the racial and gender differences in emotion's ability to affect political behavior. We conclude with a discussion of unaddressed questions and suggestions for future directions for scholars working in this area of growing importance. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Political Science, Volume 25 is May 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

Dean Knox ◽  
Christopher Lucas ◽  
Wendy K. Tam Cho

Social scientists commonly use computational models to estimate proxies of unobserved concepts, then incorporate these proxies into subsequent tests of their theories. The consequences of this practice, which occurs in over two-thirds of recent computational work in political science, are underappreciated. Imperfect proxies can reflect noise and contamination from other concepts, producing biased point estimates and standard errors. We demonstrate how analysts can use causal diagrams to articulate theoretical concepts and their relationships to estimated proxies, then apply straightforward rules to assess which conclusions are rigorously supportable. We formalize and extend common heuristics for “signing the bias”—a technique for reasoning about unobserved confounding—to scenarios with imperfect proxies. Using these tools, we demonstrate how, in often-encountered research settings, proxy-based analyses allow for valid tests for the existence and direction of theorized effects. We conclude with best-practice recommendations for the rapidly growing literature using learned proxies to test causal theories. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Political Science, Volume 25 is May 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

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