Disease Detection
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Livers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (4) ◽  
pp. 294-312
Author(s):  
Fahad Mostafa ◽  
Easin Hasan ◽  
Morgan Williamson ◽  
Hafiz Khan

Medical diagnoses have important implications for improving patient care, research, and policy. For a medical diagnosis, health professionals use different kinds of pathological methods to make decisions on medical reports in terms of the patients’ medical conditions. Recently, clinicians have been actively engaged in improving medical diagnoses. The use of artificial intelligence and machine learning in combination with clinical findings has further improved disease detection. In the modern era, with the advantage of computers and technologies, one can collect data and visualize many hidden outcomes such as dealing with missing data in medical research. Statistical machine learning algorithms based on specific problems can assist one to make decisions. Machine learning (ML), data-driven algorithms can be utilized to validate existing methods and help researchers to make potential new decisions. The purpose of this study was to extract significant predictors for liver disease from the medical analysis of 615 humans using ML algorithms. Data visualizations were implemented to reveal significant findings such as missing values. Multiple imputations by chained equations (MICEs) were applied to generate missing data points, and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality. Variable importance ranking using the Gini index was implemented to verify significant predictors obtained from the PCA. Training data (ntrain=399) for learning and testing data (ntest=216) in the ML methods were used for predicting classifications. The study compared binary classifier machine learning algorithms (i.e., artificial neural network, random forest (RF), and support vector machine), which were utilized on a published liver disease data set to classify individuals with liver diseases, which will allow health professionals to make a better diagnosis. The synthetic minority oversampling technique was applied to oversample the minority class to regulate overfitting problems. The RF significantly contributed (p<0.001) to a higher accuracy score of 98.14% compared to the other methods. Thus, this suggests that ML methods predict liver disease by incorporating the risk factors, which may improve the inference-based diagnosis of patients.


Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (23) ◽  
pp. 8045
Author(s):  
Anjan Gudigar ◽  
U Raghavendra ◽  
Sneha Nayak ◽  
Chui Ping Ooi ◽  
Wai Yee Chan ◽  
...  

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused millions of deaths and affected the livelihood of many more people. Early and rapid detection of COVID-19 is a challenging task for the medical community, but it is also crucial in stopping the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Prior substantiation of artificial intelligence (AI) in various fields of science has encouraged researchers to further address this problem. Various medical imaging modalities including X-ray, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) using AI techniques have greatly helped to curb the COVID-19 outbreak by assisting with early diagnosis. We carried out a systematic review on state-of-the-art AI techniques applied with X-ray, CT, and US images to detect COVID-19. In this paper, we discuss approaches used by various authors and the significance of these research efforts, the potential challenges, and future trends related to the implementation of an AI system for disease detection during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1320
Author(s):  
Antonio Pierro ◽  
Alessandro Posa ◽  
Costanzo Astore ◽  
Mariacarmela Sciandra ◽  
Alessandro Tanzilli ◽  
...  

Multiple myeloma is a hematological malignancy of plasma cells usually detected due to various bone abnormalities on imaging and rare extraosseous abnormalities. The traditional approach for disease detection was based on plain radiographs, showing typical lytic lesions. Still, this technique has many limitations in terms of diagnosis and assessment of response to treatment. The new approach to assess osteolytic lesions in patients newly diagnosed with multiple myeloma is based on total-body low-dose CT. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a guide for radiologists in performing and evaluating a total-body low-dose CT in patients with multiple myeloma, both newly-diagnosed and in follow-up (pre and post treatment).


2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 40-54
Author(s):  
Amer S. Elameer ◽  
Mustafa Musa Jaber ◽  
Sura Khalil Abd

Abstract Radiography images are widely utilized in the health sector to recognize the patient health condition. The noise and irrelevant region information minimize the entire disease detection accuracy and computation complexity. Therefore, in this study, statistical Kolmogorov–Smirnov test has been integrated with wavelet transform to overcome the de-noising issues. Then the cat swarm-optimized deep belief network is applied to extract the features from the affected region. The optimized deep learning model reduces the feature training cost and time and improves the overall disease detection accuracy. The network learning process is enhanced according to the AdaDelta learning process, which replaces the learning parameter with a delta value. This process minimizes the error rate while recognizing the disease. The efficiency of the system evaluated using image retrieval in medical application dataset. This process helps to determine the various diseases such as breast, lung, and pediatric studies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Tahia Tazin ◽  
Md Nur Alam ◽  
Nahian Nakiba Dola ◽  
Mohammad Sajibul Bari ◽  
Sami Bourouis ◽  
...  

Stroke is a medical disorder in which the blood arteries in the brain are ruptured, causing damage to the brain. When the supply of blood and other nutrients to the brain is interrupted, symptoms might develop. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), stroke is the greatest cause of death and disability globally. Early recognition of the various warning signs of a stroke can help reduce the severity of the stroke. Different machine learning (ML) models have been developed to predict the likelihood of a stroke occurring in the brain. This research uses a range of physiological parameters and machine learning algorithms, such as Logistic Regression (LR), Decision Tree (DT) Classification, Random Forest (RF) Classification, and Voting Classifier, to train four different models for reliable prediction. Random Forest was the best performing algorithm for this task with an accuracy of approximately 96 percent. The dataset used in the development of the method was the open-access Stroke Prediction dataset. The accuracy percentage of the models used in this investigation is significantly higher than that of previous studies, indicating that the models used in this investigation are more reliable. Numerous model comparisons have established their robustness, and the scheme can be deduced from the study analysis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dengsheng Sun ◽  
Laura Webb ◽  
P. P. J. van der Tol ◽  
Kees van Reenen

Infectious diseases, particularly bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD), are prevalent in calves. Efficient health-monitoring tools to identify such diseases on time are lacking. Common practice (i.e., health checks) often identifies sick calves at a late stage of disease or not at all. Sensor technology enables the automatic and continuous monitoring of calf physiology or behavior, potentially offering timely and precise detection of sick calves. A systematic overview of automated disease detection in calves is still lacking. The objectives of this literature review were hence: to investigate previously applied sensor validation methods used in the context of calf health, to identify sensors used on calves, the parameters these sensors monitor, and the statistical tools applied to identify diseases, to explore potential research gaps and to point to future research opportunities. To achieve these objectives, systematic literature searches were conducted. We defined four stages in the development of health-monitoring systems: (1) sensor technique, (2) data interpretation, (3) information integration, and (4) decision support. Fifty-four articles were included (stage one: 26; stage two: 19; stage three: 9; and stage four: 0). Common parameters that assess the performance of these systems are sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, and negative predictive value. Gold standards that typically assess these parameters include manual measurement and manual health-assessment protocols. At stage one, automatic feeding stations, accelerometers, infrared thermography cameras, microphones, and 3-D cameras are accurate in screening behavior and physiology in calves. At stage two, changes in feeding behaviors, lying, activity, or body temperature corresponded to changes in health status, and point to health issues earlier than manual health checks. At stage three, accelerometers, thermometers, and automatic feeding stations have been integrated into one system that was shown to be able to successfully detect diseases in calves, including BRD and NCD. We discuss these findings, look into potentials at stage four, and touch upon the topic of resilience, whereby health-monitoring system might be used to detect low resilience (i.e., prone to disease but clinically healthy calves), promoting further improvements in calf health and welfare.


Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2208
Author(s):  
Muhammad Attique Khan ◽  
Venkatesan Rajinikanth ◽  
Suresh Chandra Satapathy ◽  
David Taniar ◽  
Jnyana Ranjan Mohanty ◽  
...  

Pulmonary nodule is one of the lung diseases and its early diagnosis and treatment are essential to cure the patient. This paper introduces a deep learning framework to support the automated detection of lung nodules in computed tomography (CT) images. The proposed framework employs VGG-SegNet supported nodule mining and pre-trained DL-based classification to support automated lung nodule detection. The classification of lung CT images is implemented using the attained deep features, and then these features are serially concatenated with the handcrafted features, such as the Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Local-Binary-Pattern (LBP) and Pyramid Histogram of Oriented Gradients (PHOG) to enhance the disease detection accuracy. The images used for experiments are collected from the LIDC-IDRI and Lung-PET-CT-Dx datasets. The experimental results attained show that the VGG19 architecture with concatenated deep and handcrafted features can achieve an accuracy of 97.83% with the SVM-RBF classifier.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Malik Bader Alazzam ◽  
Fawaz Alassery ◽  
Ahmed Almulihi

A cross-sectional study of patients with suspected diabetic retinopathy (DR) who had an ophthalmological examination and a retinal scan is the focus of this research. Specialized retinal images were analyzed and classified using OPF and RBM models (restricted Boltzmann machines). Classification of retinographs was based on the presence or absence of disease-related retinopathy (DR). The RBM and OPF models extracted 500 and 1000 characteristics from the images for disease classification after the system training phase for the recognition of retinopathy and normality patterns. There were a total of fifteen different experiment series, each with a repetition rate of 30 cycles. The study included 73 diabetics (a total of 122 eyes), with 50.7% of them being men and 49.3% being women. The population was on the older side, at 59.7 years old on average. The RBM-1000 had the highest overall diagnostic accuracy (89.47) of any of the devices evaluated. The RBM-500 had a better autodetection system for DR signals in fundus images than the competition (100% sensitivity). In terms of specificity, RBM-1000 and OPF-1000 correctly identified all of the images that lacked DR signs. In particular, the RBM model of machine learning automatic disease detection performed well in terms of diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and application in diabetic retinopathy screening.


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