Immune Response
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(FIVE YEARS 22219)



2022 ◽  
Vol 127 ◽  
pp. 104288
Ying Huang ◽  
Rui-Xia Wang ◽  
Fu-Hui Jiang ◽  
Xiao-Tong Xu ◽  
Yan Shi ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 ◽  
pp. 100885
Fatima Sughra ◽  
Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman ◽  
Farzana Abbas ◽  
Imran Altaf ◽  
Sumaira Aslam ◽  

George Pashev

It is a healthy diet that creates conditions for human life, ensuring the optimal functioning of all processes in the body. Of course, a healthy diet cannot be a protection against the penetration of infection into the body, but it is the balanced and full-fledged nature of the diet that creates the conditions for the formation of a timely and adequate immune response. In order to help consumers in getting more balanced and healthy diet, we created a personalized Healthy Menu Generator Chatbot, based on Prolog Knowledge base. The user request is constructed by user in a subset of English Language by using Request Fragments from a list. Cross-translation of the user request and its execution in the Prolog Execution Environment is extensively covered in the paper.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (3) ◽  
Ying Yang ◽  
Junhao Zhou ◽  
Pengfei Miao ◽  
Jiafang Xie ◽  
Hua Liu ◽  

Edwardsiella tarda, the causative agent of ascites disease, is a major fish pathogen and has caused significant economic losses in aquaculture. To decipher the immune response process challenged by E. tarda in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens infected with bacteria at 6 h, 24 h, and 72 h were obtained using the Illumina sequencing platform. After de novo assembly, a total of 158,124 unigenes were detected. To further investigate the immune-related DEGs, gene ontology (GO) enrichment and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis were performed. Immune pathways about antigen processing and presentation pathway, complement and coagulation cascades pathway, and apoptosis pathway were combined to discussed in this study. Additionally, 10 immune-related DEGs in these three immune pathways were randomly selected for expression verification by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The data generated in this study provides a valuable resource for further immune response research and offers efficient strategies against E. tarda infection in yellow catfish.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Rodrigo Hernán Tomas-Grau ◽  
Diego Ploper ◽  
César Luis Ávila ◽  
Esteban Vera Pingitore ◽  
Carolina Maldonado Galdeano ◽  

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic with dramatic health and socioeconomic consequences. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) challenges health systems to quickly respond by developing new diagnostic strategies that contribute to identify infected individuals, monitor infections, perform contact-tracing, and limit the spread of the virus. In this brief report, we developed a highly sensitive, specific, and precise “In-House” ELISA to correctly discriminate previously SARS-CoV-2-infected and non-infected individuals and study population seroprevalence. Among 758 individuals evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV-2 serology in the province of Tucumán, Argentina, we found a weak correlation between antibodies elicited against the RBD, the receptor-binding domain of the Spike protein, and the nucleocapsid (N) antigens of this virus. Additionally, we detected mild levels of anti-RBD IgG antibodies in 33.6% of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19, while only 19% showed sufficient antibody titers to be considered as plasma donors. No differences in IgG anti-RBD titers were found between women and men, neither in between different age groups ranging from 18 to 60. Surprisingly, individuals from a high altitude village displayed elevated and longer lasting anti-RBD titers compared to those from a lower altitude city. To our knowledge, this is the first report correlating altitude with increased humoral immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 1177
Valeria Trincado ◽  
Rikhav P. Gala ◽  
Javier O. Morales

Currently, most vaccines available on the market are for parental use; however, this may not be the best option on several occasions. Mucosal routes of administration such as intranasal, sublingual, and buccal generate great interest due to the benefits they offer. These range from increasing patient compliance to inducing a more effective immune response than that achieved through conventional routes. Due to the activation of the common mucosal immune system, it is possible to generate an effective systemic and local immune response, which is not achieved through parenteral administration. Protection against pathogens that use mucosal entry routes is provided by an effective induction of mucosal immunity. Mucosal delivery systems are being developed, such as films and microneedles, which have proven to be effective, safe, and easy to administer. These systems have multiple advantages over commonly used injections, which are simple to manufacture, stable at room temperature, painless for the patient since they do not require puncture. Therefore, these delivery systems do not require to be administered by medical personnel; in fact, they could be self-administered.

2021 ◽  
Vignesh Narayanaswamy ◽  
Brian Pentecost ◽  
Corina N Schoen ◽  
Dominique Alfandari ◽  
Sallie S Schneider ◽  

Objective: To evaluate the immune response to COVID-19 mRNA-based vaccines present in breastmilk and the transfer of the immune response to the breastfeeding child. Methods: A prospective cohort study enrolled 30 lactating women who received an mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine between January and April 2021. Women provided serial milk samples, which included milk expressed before vaccination, milk expressed across 2-3 weeks after the first dose, and milk expressed across 3 weeks after the second dose. Women also were asked to provide their blood, spotted on cards (dried blood spots; DBS) 19 days after the first dose and 21 days after the second dose. Stool samples from the breastfed infants were collected 21 days after mothers received their second dose. Pre-pandemic samples of milk, DBS cards, and infant stool from prior studies were also utilized. Milk and infant stool samples were tested by ELISA for receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgA and IgG. Milk samples were tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies against the spike and four variants of concern (VOCs): D614G, B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), and P.1 (gamma). Milk samples were also tested by electrochemiluminescence assay for levels of 10 cytokines. Results: Milk from COVID-19-immunized women neutralized the spike and four VOCs and this response is primarily IgG-driven. The immune response in milk also included significantly elevated levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The immune response to maternal vaccination was reflected in breastfed babies; anti-RBD IgG and anti-RBD IgA was detected in 33% and 30% of infant stool samples, respectively. Levels of anti-RBD antibodies in infant stool correlated with maternal vaccine side-effects. Conclusion: Humoral and cellular immune responses to mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination are present in the breastmilk of most women. The milk anti-RBD antibodies can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 spike and VOCs. Importantly, we describe for the first time the transfer of anti-RBD antibodies to breastfed infants, with the potential to confer passive immunity against SARS-CoV-2

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2754
Giuseppe Murdaca ◽  
Mario Di Gioacchino ◽  
Monica Greco ◽  
Matteo Borro ◽  
Francesca Paladin ◽  

Basophils and mast cells are among the principal inducers of Th2 responses and have a crucial role in allergic and anti-parasitic protective immunity. Basophils can function as antigen-presenting cells that bind antigens on their surface and boost humoral immune responses, inducing Th2 cell differentiation. Their depletion results in lower humoral memory activation and greater infection susceptibility. Basophils seem to have an active role upon immune response to SARS-CoV-2. In fact, a coordinate adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is magnified by basophils. It has been observed that basophil amount is lower during acute disease with respect to the recovery phase and that the grade of this depletion is an important determinant of the antibody response to the virus. Moreover, mast cells, present in a great quantity in the nasal epithelial and lung cells, participate in the first immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Their activation results in a hyperinflammatory syndrome through the release of inflammatory molecules, participating to the “cytokine storm” and, in a longer period, inducing pulmonary fibrosis. The literature data suggest that basophil counts may be a useful prognostic tool for COVID-19, since their reduction is associated with a worse prognosis. Mast cells, on the other hand, represent a possible therapeutic target for reducing the airway inflammation characteristic of the hyperacute phase of the disease.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258216
Kathrin Halli ◽  
Seyi Fridaius Vanvanhossou ◽  
Mehdi Bohlouli ◽  
Sven König ◽  
Tong Yin

The aim of this study was to estimate genotype by time-lagged heat stress (HS) variance components as well as main and interaction SNP-marker effects for maternal HS during the last eight weeks of cow pregnancy, considering milk production traits recorded in the offspring generation. The HS indicator was the temperature humidity index (THI) for each week. A dummy variable with the code = 1 for the respective week for THI ≥ 60 indicated HS, otherwise, for no HS, the code = 0 was assigned. The dataset included test-day and lactation production traits from 14,188 genotyped first parity Holstein cows. After genotype quality control, 41,139 SNP markers remained for the genomic analyses. Genomic animal models without (model VC_nHS) and with in-utero HS effects (model VC_wHS) were applied to estimate variance components. Accordingly, for genome-wide associations, models GWA_nHS and GWA_wHS, respectively, were applied to estimate main and interaction SNP effects. Common genomic and residual variances for the same traits were very similar from models VC_nHS and VC_wHS. Genotype by HS interaction variances varied, depending on the week with in-utero HS. Among all traits, lactation milk yield with HS from week 5 displayed the largest proportion for interaction variances (0.07). For main effects from model GWA_wHS, 380 SNPs were suggestively associated with all production traits. For the SNP interaction effects from model GWA_wHS, we identified 31 suggestive SNPs, which were located in close distance to 62 potential candidate genes. The inferred candidate genes have various biological functions, including mechanisms of immune response, growth processes and disease resistance. Two biological processes excessively represented in the overrepresentation tests addressed lymphocyte and monocyte chemotaxis, ultimately affecting immune response. The modelling approach considering time-lagged genotype by HS interactions for production traits inferred physiological mechanisms being associated with health and immunity, enabling improvements in selection of robust animals.

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