Gallbladder cancer is a very aggressive type of biliary tract cancer. The only curative treatment is complete surgical excision of the tumour. However, even after surgery, there is still a risk of recurrence of the cancer.
A 63-year-old gentleman presented with the complaint of a non-healing ulcer at upper abdomen for the last 1 month. He had undergone a laparoscopic cholecystectomy at a private centre 4 months ago. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of epigastric port site metastasis from a primary from gall bladder adenocarcinoma. After undergoing completion radical cholecystectomy with wide local excision of the epigastric ulcer, he received 6 cycles of concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Eighteen months later, he presented to us with bilateral axillary swellings. Investigations confirmed isolated bilateral axillary metastasis and the patient underwent a bilateral axillary lymphadenectomy (Level 3). However, PET scan after 6 months showed widespread metastasis and the patient succumbed to the illness 1 month later.
Axillary metastasis probably occurs due to the presence of microscopic systemic metastasis at the time of development of port site metastasis. An R0 resection of the malignancy is the only viable option for effective therapy. The present case highlights the rare involvement of isolated bilateral axillary lymph nodes as a distant metastatic site with no evidence of disease in the locoregional site. However, the prognosis after metastasis remains dismal despite multiple treatment modalities.
Due to the lack of clinical trials on the efficacy of chemotherapy in older patients, an optimal treatment strategy has not been developed. We investigated whether adjuvant chemotherapy could improve the survival of older patients with breast cancer in Japan.
We retrospectively analyzed data of patients with breast cancer aged ≥ 70 years who underwent breast cancer surgery in eight hospitals between 2008 and 2013. Clinical treatment and follow-up data were obtained from the patients’ medical electric records.
A total of 1095 patients were enrolled, of which 905 were included in the initial non-matched analysis. The median age and follow-up period were 75 (range 70–93) and 6.3 years, respectively. Of these patients, 127 (14%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (Chemo group) while the remaining 778 (86%) did not (Control group). The Chemo group was younger (mean age in years 73 vs 76; P < 0.0001), had a larger pathological tumor size (mean mm 25.9 vs 19.9; P < 0.0001), and more metastatic axillary lymph nodes (mean numbers 2.7 vs 0.7; P < 0.0001) than the Control group. The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.783 and P = 0.558). After matched analyses, DFS was found to be significantly prolonged with adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.037); however, OS difference in the matched cohort was not statistically significant (P = 0.333).
The results showed that adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a reduced risk of recurrence, but survival benefits were limited.
BackgroundTumor flare reaction (TFR) is a clinical syndrome, which is mainly associated with painful and swollen lymph nodes or splenomegaly, slight fever, bone pain, and skin rash during treatment with immune-related drugs, causing difficulty in distinguishing TFR from disease progression. Brentuximab vedotin (BV) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor are two ideal drugs used for the treatment of classic Hodgkin lymphoma, but few studies have reported their adverse effects in association with TFR. The efficacy and safety of monotherapy or combination therapy with these drugs needs to be further evaluated. It is essential to determine whether treated patients can develop TFR, thus enabling more accurate diagnosis and treatment.Case presentationA 26-year-old female patient, diagnosed with classic Hodgkin lymphoma, had received 2 + 3 cycles of ABVD chemotherapy (a combination of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) and 4 cycles of PD-1 inhibitor (tislelizumab) therapy but exhibited poor efficacy. Subsequently, she was given combination therapy of BV (100 mg) + tislelizumab (200 mg). However, a slight fever, painful and swollen axillary lymph nodes, multiple skin rashes with pruritus, joint pain, and fatigue with poor appetite appeared during the treatment. Ultrasound (US) scans revealed that multiple lymph nodes were significantly enlarged. After treatment with low-dose dexamethasone and cetirizine, the symptoms were alleviated. A biopsy of the left axillary lymph node revealed that lymphoid tissue exhibited proliferative changes, without tumor cell infiltration. These findings were consistent with the clinical and pathological manifestations of TFR.ConclusionCombination therapy with BV and PD-1 inhibitor was effective in the treatment of relapsed or refractory classic Hodgkin lymphoma. The results suggest that the combination therapy may cause TFR, and biopsy and also continuous imaging observation are important to determine the disease stage. This approach allows clinicians to decide whether to continue the current treatment plan, and alerts them to the occurrence of excessive activation of the immune system.
AbstractThe current diagnostic technologies for assessing the axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) status accurately in breast cancer (BC) remain unsatisfactory. Here, we developed a diagnostic model for evaluating the ALNM status using a combination of mRNAs and the T stage of the primary tumor as a novel biomarker. We collected relevant information on T1–2 BC from public databases. An ALNM prediction model was developed by logistic regression based on the screened signatures and then internally and externally validated. Calibration curves and the area under the curve (AUC) were employed as performance metrics. The prognostic value and tumor immune infiltration of the model were also determined. An optimal diagnostic model was created using a combination of 11 mRNAs and T stage of the primary tumor and showed high discrimination, with AUCs of 0.828 and 0.746 in the training sets. AUCs of 0.671 and 0.783 were achieved in the internal validation cohorts. The mean external AUC value was 0.686 and ranged between 0.644 and 0.742. Moreover, the new model has good specificity in T1 and hormone receptor-negative/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- negative (HR−/HER2−) BC and good sensitivity in T2 BC. In addition, the risk of ALNM and 11 mRNAs were correlated with the infiltration of M2 macrophages, as well as the prognosis of BC. This novel prediction model is a useful tool to identify the risk of ALNM in T1–2 BC patients, particularly given that it can be used to adjust surgical options in the future.
The study’s primary aim is to evaluate the predictive performance of CT-derived 3D radiomics for MCL risk stratification. The secondary objective is to search for radiomic features associated with sustained remission. Included were 70 patients: 31 MCL patients and 39 control subjects with normal axillary lymph nodes followed over five years. Radiomic analysis of all targets (n = 745) was performed and features selected using the Mann Whitney U test; the discriminative power of identifying “high-risk MCL” was evaluated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC). The four radiomic features, “Uniformity”, “Entropy”, “Skewness” and “Difference Entropy” showed predictive significance for relapse (p < 0.05)—in contrast to the routine size measurements, which showed no relevant difference. The best prognostication for relapse achieved the feature “Uniformity” (AUC-ROC-curve 0.87; optimal cut-off ≤0.0159 to predict relapse with 87% sensitivity, 65% specificity, 69% accuracy). Several radiomic features, including the parameter “Short Axis,” were associated with sustained remission. CT-derived 3D radiomics improves the predictive estimation of MCL patients; in combination with the ability to identify potential radiomic features that are characteristic for sustained remission, it may assist physicians in the clinical management of MCL.
Objectives: To assess the frequency and intensity of [18F]-PSMA-1007 axillary uptake in lymph nodes ipsilateral to COVID-19 vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) in patients with prostate cancer referred for oncological [18F]-PSMA PET/CT or PET/MR imaging. Methods: One hundred twenty six patients undergoing [18F]-PSMA PET/CT or PET/MR imaging were retrospectively included. [18F]-PSMA activity (SUVmax) of ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes was measured and compared with the non-vaccinated contralateral side-and with a non-vaccinated negative control group. [18F]-PSMA active lymph node metastases were measured to serve as quantitative reference. Results: There was a significant difference in SUVmax in ipsilateral and compared to contralateral axillary lymph nodes in the vaccination group (n = 63, p < 0.001) and no such difference in the non-vaccinated control group (n = 63, p = 0.379). Vaccinated patients showed mildly increased axillary lymph node [18F]-PSMA uptake as compared to non-vaccinated patients (p = 0.03). [18F]-PSMA activity of of lymph node metastases was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to axillary lymph nodes of vaccinated patients. Conclusions: Our data suggest mildly increased [18F]-PSMA uptake after COVID-19 vaccination in ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes. However, given the significantly higher [18F]-PSMA uptake of prostatic lymph node metastases compared to “reactive” nodes after COVID-19 vaccination, no therapeutic and diagnostic dilemma is to be expected. Advances in knowledge: No specific preparations or precautions (e.g., adaption of vaccination scheduling) need to be undertaken in patients undergoing [18F]-PSMA PET imaging after COVID-19 vaccination.
Breast tuberculosis is an extremely rare entity representing less than 0.1% of all breast disease in developed countries1. Tuberculous infections within the United Kingdom have seen a steady decline with the highest rates present within North West London where infection rates reach 24.8 per 1000002. The presentation can mimic malignancy and lymphatic involvement of the breast both clinically and mammographically, with nodules within the upper outer quadrant, making accurate diagnosis challenging.3 Approximately 30% of breast TB cases present with axillary lymphadenopathy and a recent case series review of approximately 44 cases in London found that the most common presenting feature was a solitary breast lump in 87% of cases.4 We present a case of a patient presenting with primary malignancy and contralateral nodal disease highly suspicious for breast malignancy. Subsequent investigation led to the identification of synchronous localized cancer and tuberculous lymphadenitis. Synchronous presentation is uncommon and recognition and differentiation is vital as axillary lymph node metastasis is the most important factor in the staging of breast carcinoma and determining the subsequent oncological and surgical management.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, among females world-wide. Recent research suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a major role in the development of breast cancer metastasis. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is a procedure in patients with known lymph node metastases, and after surgery large amounts of serous fluid are produced from the axilla. The overall aim was to isolate and characterize EVs from axillary serous fluid, and more specifically to determine if potential breast cancer biomarkers could be identified.
Lymphatic drain fluid was collected from 7 patients with breast cancer the day after ALND. EVs were isolated using size exclusion chromatography, quantified and detected by nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, nano flow cytometry and western blot. The expression of 37 EV surface proteins was evaluated by flow cytometry using the MACSPlex Exosome kit.
Lymphatic drainage exudate retrieved after surgery from all 7 patients contained EVs. The isolated EVs were positive for the typical EV markers CD9, CD63, CD81 and Flotillin-1 while albumin was absent, indicating low contamination from blood proteins. In total, 24 different EV surface proteins were detected. Eleven of those proteins were detected in all patients, including the common EV markers CD9, CD63 and CD81, cancer-related markers CD24, CD29, CD44 and CD146, platelet markers CD41b, CD42a and CD62p as well as HLA-DR/DP/DQ. Furthermore, CD29 and CD146 were enriched in Her2+ patients compared to patients with Her2- tumors.
Lymphatic drainage exudate retrieved from breast cancer patients after surgery contains EVs that can be isolated using SEC isolation. The EVs have several cancer-related markers including CD24, CD29, CD44 and CD146, proteins of potential interest as biomarkers as well as to increase the understanding of the mechanisms of cancer biology.
AbstractInvasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) has very high rates of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis and has been reported in several organs. However, the genomic mechanisms underlying its metastasis are unclear. Here, we perform whole-genome sequencing of tumor cell clusters from primary IMPC and paired axillary lymph node metastases. Cell clusters in multiple lymph node foci arise from a single subclone of the primary tumor. We find evidence that the monoclonal metastatic ancestor in primary IMPC shares high frequency copy-number loss of PRDM16 and IGSF9 and the copy number gain of ALDH2. Immunohistochemistry analysis further shows that low expression of IGSF9 and PRDM16 and high expression of ALDH2 are associated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival of patients with IMPC. We expect these genomic and evolutionary profiles to contribute to the accurate diagnosis of IMPC.
AbstractSeveral types of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine have been developed. However, the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and radiation therapy (RT) is unclear. Recently, there have been some reports of radiation recall phenomenon (RRP) caused by a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We report a case of RRP after administration of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. A 51-year-old female was diagnosed with breast cancer (cT4N1M0, cStage IIIB) and underwent breast total mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After mastectomy, the patient received RT with 50 Gy in 25 fractions. An acute side effect of grade 2 dermatitis according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. occurred after RT. The patient had not started any new systemic medication after RT; however, the patient received the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Moderna) 1 month after the end of the initial RT. Seven days after vaccination, the patient had a skin reaction with burning sensation and redness. This skin reaction was induced in an area corresponding to the irradiation field of the chest wall. There was no skin reaction in areas other than that described. The reaction was cured within 1 week with topical hydrocortisone. This report is an interesting case report with a RPP after administration of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.