squamous metaplasia
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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 300584
Hiroshi Harada ◽  
Takeharu Ono ◽  
Takanori Hirose ◽  
Hirohito Umeno ◽  
Jun Akiba ◽  

2022 ◽  
Zhenyu Li ◽  
Haiping Huang ◽  
Dongfang Guo ◽  
Yujie Feng ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with squamous metaplasia is a relatively rare and special subtype adenocarcinoma of thyroid which involves multiple genetic changes. We reported a rare case of atypical PTC with squamous metaplasia and RET/NRAS/TERT/PIK3CA mutations which was confirmed after surgical resection pathologically. Case summary: A 2.5×2.5×2 cm3, smooth, hard, clear boundaries and solid nodule on the left thyroid gland was found on relevant physical examination of the patient. And then, the unilateral radical resection of thyroid carcinoma was performed after diagnosing. The tumor cells were squamous metaplasia and arranged in structures with diffuse growth pattern microscopically. At high magnification, stretched nucleus, nuclear grooves and internuclear pseudoinclusions in tumor cells were detected, and the follicular epithelium cells were atypical. Immunohistochemical staining shown strong positiveness of CK19, TTF-1, P40 and Galectin-3, partial positiveness of TG of tumor cells and negativeness of Calcitonin, which could exclude medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Furthermore, first generation sequencing of 18 PTC related genes techniques shown RET, NRAS, TERT and PIK3CA was mutated. Conclusion: Genetic detection is vital to the diagnosis of thyroid adenocarcinoma, especially for the PTC with atypical morphology or rare metaplasia

2022 ◽  
Vol 35 ◽  
pp. 74-78
Alexander S. Taylor ◽  
Brandon Newell ◽  
Arul M. Chinnaiyan ◽  
Khaled S. Hafez ◽  
Alon Z. Weizer ◽  

Suhani Jain ◽  
P. T. Deshmukh

The nasal septum separates the right and left part of the nasal cavity and columellar septum, membranous septum and septum proper are the parts of it. Deviation of nasal septum is a common case of nasal obstruction presented in a clinic. A lot of classifications have been developed to help ease the study of deviated nasal septum but none of them is used as a standard. Some of the classifications include the one given by Vidigal, Guyuron, Cerek, Mladina and Cottle’s. Apart from nasal obstruction other common clinical features involving deviated nasal septum are sinusitis especially in horizontal deviation type V. Pressure on lateral wall by spurs can also cause pressure headache. Due to increased air flow in the nasal cavity, dryness occurs causing epistaxis. Obstruction of nasal cavity causes mouth breathing in return either exaggerating or leading to obstructive sleep apnoea. Septal deviation also effects the choroidal thickness and choroidal blood supply. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration and squamous metaplasia occurs in septal mucosa. These changes occur mostly due to change in the aerodynamic flow. There is decreased cilia movement and inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Thickness of inferior turbinate gains importance while septoplasty as, if thickened a lot, the inferior turbinate demands excision. The deviated nasal septum is associated with sinusitis, chronic suppurative otitis media and Eustachian tube dysfunction. Management involves sub mucus resection or septoplasty. Out of the two, septoplasty is preferred as it is a conservative surgery. Only symptomatic and cosmetically grossly disfigured cases require a surgical treatment while the asymptomatic cases are generally not indicated for surgery. This study tries to review the Classification, Clinical Features and Management of Deviated Nasal Septum.

Oncogene ◽  
2021 ◽  
Rebecca Williams ◽  
Stephanie Jobling ◽  
Andrew H. Sims ◽  
Chunyan Mou ◽  
Lorna Wilkinson ◽  

AbstractEctodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) is a death receptor in the Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor (TNFR) superfamily with roles in the development of hair follicles, teeth and cutaneous glands. Here we report that human Oestrogen Receptor (ER) negative breast carcinomas which display squamous differentiation express EDAR strongly. Using a mouse model with a high Edar copy number, we show that elevated EDAR signalling results in a high incidence of mammary tumours in breeding female mice. These tumours resemble the EDAR-high human tumours in that they are characterised by a lack of oestrogen receptor expression, contain extensive squamous metaplasia, and display strong β-catenin transcriptional activity. In the mouse model, all of the tumours carry somatic deletions of the third exon of the CTNNB1 gene that encodes β-catenin. Deletion of this exon yields unconstrained β-catenin signalling activity. We also demonstrate that β-catenin activity is required for transformed cell growth, showing that increased EDAR signalling creates an environment in which β-catenin activity can readily promote tumourigenesis. Together, this work identifies a novel death receptor oncogene in breast cancer, whose mechanism of transformation is based on the interaction between the WNT and Ectodysplasin A (EDA) pathways.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 295-297
Yutika Amin ◽  
Kalpana Arora ◽  
Shubhangi Rairikar ◽  
Sanjay Patil

Cutaneous ciliated cyst are relatively rare benign lesions, found in the dermis or subcutis of the lower extremities of young females in their second and third decades. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium, showing pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts can be PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. The pathogenesis of the cyst is yet being studied, some hypotheses have been proposed including the Mullerian heterotopias, ciliated metaplasia of eccrine sweat glands, and embryonic remnants of the cloacal membrane. We report a cutaneous ciliated cyst over the right gluteus area in a 29 year old female. On histologic examination, the cyst was lined by ciliated columnar epithelium, showing occasional papillary projections.

2021 ◽  
pp. 106689692110604
Mei Kong ◽  
Bo Wang ◽  
Xiaoxi Wang ◽  
Liming Xu

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common malignant tumor of salivary glands in children and young adults. Typically, it is composed of squamoid, mucin-producing and intermediate-types cells. However, overt keratinization is rare. To the best of our knowledge, extensive keratinization or keratin pearls in MEC has never been reported. Keratinization or keratin pearls are regard “practically never seen in low-grade MEC”. Herein, we report a case of a 34-year-old woman who presented with a tumor in right parotid gland for 2 months. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of extensive squamous cells with overt keratin pearls, intermediate cells and few scattered mucous cells. MAML2 gene break-apart and CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. This is the first report to describe a MEC case with extensive squamous metaplasia and overt keratin pearls formation, which expands the morphologic spectrum of MEC.

2021 ◽  
pp. 014556132110516
He Jiang ◽  
Xiaoying Yang ◽  
Ying Guo

We report two subjects with tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO), including the clinical manifestations, histological findings, and clinical treatments, which were analyzed retrospectively. One patient with TO was a 60-year-old woman, and the other was a 47-year-old man. The main clinical manifestations were cough, chest pain, and dyspnea. Computed tomography (CT) images showed that TO mainly occurred in the trachea and main bronchus. Histological analysis showed inflammatory exudation, squamous metaplasia, submucosal cartilaginous, and ossification. We present the two cases to increase physician and patient awareness of this benign disease and to improve their understanding of the disease manifestations and potential complications.

QJM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 114 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Eman Gomaa El Saeed ◽  
Manal H Moussa ◽  
Gehad A Hammouda ◽  
Sahar M. M Omar

Abstract Background Repairing urinary bladder (UB) defect by enterocystoplasty remains the gold standard surgical bladder reconstruction procedure to increase the capacity and compliance of dysfunctional bladders. However, many complications were recorded. Aim of the work This work aimed to compare the consequences of reconstruction of urinary bladder defect using untreated small intestinal submucosal (SIS) matrix versus seeded and unseeded decellularized SIS matrix. Material and Methods Fifty female albino rats were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control) included ten adult rats from which ileal tissue was obtained. Group II included ten adult rats in which their UB defect was repaired by untreated cellular SIS. Group III included twenty adult rats that were subdivided into two subgroups, 10 rats each; Subgroup IIIA where rats had their UB defect repaired by acellular SIS and subgroup IIIb where rats had their UB defect repaired by acellular SIS seeded with adipose mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs).Ten young rats were used for preparation of AMSCs. Morphometric and statistical analysis were also performed. Results In rats where UB defect was repaired by untreated cellular SIS, the graft area showed loss of epithelial polarity, presence of intraepithelial cysts and occasional extension of urothelium to the outer surface forming fistula. There were areas of metaplasia with the appearance PAS positive cells. In the lamina propria, there was areas of lymphocytic infiltration together with significant increase in the collagen fiber deposition (p < 0.05). There was a significant decrease thickness of muscle layer as compared to control (p < 0.05). In rats where UB defect was repaired by acellular SIS, urothelium in the graft area showed occasional squamous metaplasia and often the urothelium extended to the deeper layers forming Brunn's nest. There was minimal muscle regeneration in the graft area. However, in rats where UB defect was repaired by acellular SIS seeded with AMSCs, the urothelium in the graft area was nearly similar to control group with uniform urothelium thickness, minimal collagen fibers deposition and thick muscle layer that showed no significant difference from the control (p > 0.05). Conclusion Acellular SIS seeded with AMSCs showed better results compared to non-seeded and cellular SIS in reconstructing urinary bladder defects.

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