diagnostic model
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yuting Dong ◽  
Xiaozhao Liu ◽  
Bijun Jiang ◽  
Siting Wei ◽  
Bangde Xiang ◽  

BackgroundThe alternative usage of promoters provides a way to regulate gene expression, has a significant influence on the transcriptome, and contributes to the cellular transformation of cancer. However, the function of alternative promoters (APs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been systematically studied yet. In addition, the potential mechanism of regulation to the usage of APs remains unclear. DNA methylation, one of the most aberrant epigenetic modifications in cancers, is known to regulate transcriptional activity. Whether DNA methylation regulates the usage of APs needs to be explored. Here, we aim to investigate the effects of DNA methylation on usage of APs in HCC.MethodsPromoter activities were calculated based on RNA-seq data. Functional enrichment analysis was implemented to conduct GO terms. Correlation tests were used to detect the correlation between promoter activity and methylation status. The LASSO regression model was used to generate a diagnostic model. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to compare the overall survival between high and low methylation groups. RNA-seq and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) in HCC samples were performed to validate the correlation of promoter activity and methylation.ResultsWe identified 855 APs in total, which could be well used to distinguish cancer from normal samples. The correlation of promoter activity and DNA methylation in APs was observed, and the APs with negative correlation were defined as methylation-regulated APs (mrAPs). Six mrAPs were identified to generate a diagnostic model with good performance (AUC = 0.97). Notably, the majority of mrAPs had CpG sites that could be used to predict clinical outcomes by methylation status. Finally, we verified 85.6% of promoter activity variation and 92.3% of methylation changes in our paired RNA-seq and WGBS samples, respectively. The negative correlation between promoter activity and methylation status was further confirmed in our HCC samples.ConclusionThe aberrant methylation status plays a critical role in the precision usage of APs in HCC, which sheds light on the mechanism of cancer development and provides a new insight into cancer screening and treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Haiyang Li ◽  
Yunzhu Shen ◽  
Zhikai Yu ◽  
Yinghui Huang ◽  
Ting He ◽  

AimsTo investigate the potential role of renal arterial resistance index (RI) in the differential diagnosis between diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and non-diabetic kidney disease (NDKD) and establish a better-quantified differential diagnostic model.Materials and MethodsWe consecutively reviewed 469 type 2 diabetes patients who underwent renal biopsy in our center. According to the renal biopsy results, eligible patients were classified into the DKD group and the NDKD group. The diagnostic significance of RI was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to search for independent risk factors associated with DKD. Then a novel diagnostic model was established using multivariate logistic regression analysis.ResultsA total of 332 DKD and 137 NDKD patients were enrolled for analysis. RI was significantly higher in the DKD group compared with those in the NDKD group (0.70 vs. 0.63, p< 0.001). The optimum cutoff value of RI for predicting DKD was 0.66 with sensitivity (69.2%) and specificity (80.9%). Diabetic retinopathy, diabetes duration ≥ 60 months, HbA1c ≥ 7.0(%), RI ≥ 0.66, and body mass index showed statistical significance in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Then, we constructed a new diagnostic model based on these results. And the validation tests indicated that the new model had good sensitivity (81.5%) and specificity (78.6%).ConclusionsRI has a potential role in discriminating DKD from NDKD. The RI-based predicting model can be helpful for differential diagnosis of DKD and NDKD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Lei Zhao ◽  
Fengfeng Lv ◽  
Ye Zheng ◽  
Liqiu Yan ◽  
Xufen Cao

Objective: Advancing age is a major risk factor of atherosclerosis (AS). Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains indistinct. Herein, this study conducted a comprehensive analysis of the biological implications of aging-related genes in AS.Methods: Gene expression profiles of AS and non-AS samples were curated from the GEO project. Differential expression analysis was adopted for screening AS-specific aging-related genes. LASSO regression analysis was presented for constructing a diagnostic model, and the discriminatory capacity was evaluated with ROC curves. Through consensus clustering analysis, aging-based molecular subtypes were conducted. Immune levels were estimated based on the expression of HLAs, immune checkpoints, and immune cell infiltrations. Key genes were then identified via WGCNA. The effects of CEBPB knockdown on macrophage polarization were examined with western blotting and ELISA. Furthermore, macrophages were exposed to 100 mg/L ox-LDL for 48 h to induce macrophage foam cells. After silencing CEBPB, markers of cholesterol uptake, esterification and hydrolysis, and efflux were detected with western blotting.Results: This study identified 28 AS-specific aging-related genes. The aging-related gene signature was developed, which could accurately diagnose AS in both the GSE20129 (AUC = 0.898) and GSE43292 (AUC = 0.685) datasets. Based on the expression profiling of AS-specific aging-related genes, two molecular subtypes were clustered, and with diverse immune infiltration features. The molecular subtype–relevant genes were obtained with WGCNA, which were markedly associated with immune activation. Silencing CEBPB triggered anti-inflammatory M2-like polarization and suppressed foam cell formation.Conclusion: Our findings suggest the critical implications of aging-related genes in diagnosing AS and modulating immune infiltrations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Qi Xiao ◽  
Rongyao Hou ◽  
Hong Li ◽  
Shuai Zhang ◽  
Fuzhi Zhang ◽  

Large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke is closely associated with atherosclerosis, characterized by the accumulation of immune cells. Early recognition of LAA stroke is crucial. Circulating exosomal circRNAs profiling represents a promising, noninvasive approach for the detection of LAA stroke. Exosomal circRNA sequencing was used to identify differentially expressed circRNAs between LAA stroke and normal controls. From a further validation stage, the results were validated using RT-qPCR. We then built logistic regression models of exosomal circRNAs based on a large replication stage, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the diagnostic efficacy. Using exosomal circRNA sequencing, large sample validation, and diagnostic model construction revealed that exosomal circ_0043837 and circ_ 0001801were independent predictive factors for LAA stroke, and had better diagnostic efficacy than plasma circRNAs. In the atherosclerotic group (AS), we developed a nomogram for clinical use that integrated the two-circRNA-based risk factors to predict which patients might have the risk of plaque rupture. Circulating exosomal circRNAs profiling identifies novel predictive biomarkers for the LAA stroke and plaque rupture, with superior diagnostic value than plasma circRNAs. It might facilitate the prevention and better management of this disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Na Luo ◽  
Ying Wen ◽  
Qiongyan Zou ◽  
Dengjie Ouyang ◽  
Qitong Chen ◽  

AbstractThe current diagnostic technologies for assessing the axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) status accurately in breast cancer (BC) remain unsatisfactory. Here, we developed a diagnostic model for evaluating the ALNM status using a combination of mRNAs and the T stage of the primary tumor as a novel biomarker. We collected relevant information on T1–2 BC from public databases. An ALNM prediction model was developed by logistic regression based on the screened signatures and then internally and externally validated. Calibration curves and the area under the curve (AUC) were employed as performance metrics. The prognostic value and tumor immune infiltration of the model were also determined. An optimal diagnostic model was created using a combination of 11 mRNAs and T stage of the primary tumor and showed high discrimination, with AUCs of 0.828 and 0.746 in the training sets. AUCs of 0.671 and 0.783 were achieved in the internal validation cohorts. The mean external AUC value was 0.686 and ranged between 0.644 and 0.742. Moreover, the new model has good specificity in T1 and hormone receptor-negative/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- negative (HR−/HER2−) BC and good sensitivity in T2 BC. In addition, the risk of ALNM and 11 mRNAs were correlated with the infiltration of M2 macrophages, as well as the prognosis of BC. This novel prediction model is a useful tool to identify the risk of ALNM in T1–2 BC patients, particularly given that it can be used to adjust surgical options in the future.

Machines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 53
Xueying Li ◽  
Peng Ren ◽  
Zhe Zhang ◽  
Xiaohan Jia ◽  
Xueyuan Peng

The pressure-volume diagram (p−V diagram) is an established method for analyzing the thermodynamic process in the cylinder of a reciprocating compressor as well as the fault of its core components including valves. The failure of suction/discharge valves is the most common cause of unscheduled shutdowns, and undetected failure may lead to catastrophic accidents. Although researchers have investigated fault classification by various estimation techniques and case studies, few have looked deeper into the barriers and pathways to realize the level determination of faults. The initial stage of valve failure is characterized in the form of mild leakage; if this is identified at this period, more serious accidents can be prevented. This study proposes a fault diagnosis and severity estimation method of the reciprocating compressor valve by virtue of features extracted from the p−V diagram. Four-dimensional characteristic variables consisting of the pressure ratio, process angle coefficient, area coefficient, and process index coefficient are extracted from the p−V diagram. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were applied to establish the diagnostic model, where PCA realizes feature amplification and projection, then LDA implements feature dimensionality reduction and failure prediction. The method was validated by the diagnosis of various levels of severity of valve leakage in a reciprocating compressor, and further, applied in the diagnosis of two actual faults: Mild leakage caused by the cracked valve plate in a reciprocating compressor, and serious leakage caused by the deformed valve in a hydraulically driven piston compressor for a hydrogen refueling station (HRS).

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 158
Xiaofeng Huang ◽  
Wenwen Hua ◽  
Xingying Dai

The rapid development of urbanization and industrialization brings a series of problems of environment governance, and several basins are facing huge pressure. This paper selects the Taihu basin in the Yangtze River Delta of China as the study area, establishes the DPSIR model to measure the water environment governance performance of the region (), analyzes the causes of changes in the five subsystems (the governance performance of the subsystems is recorded as ), and uses the diagnostic model to identify the barrier factors that restrict the improvement of in the last 5 years. The results show that during the study period, of the driving force subsystem generally tends to increase and maintains a steady growth, which is closely linked to economic growth in the basin; of the pressure subsystem increases with a small fluctuation, and the pollution generation still needs attention; in the state subsystem, shows a large fluctuation, and varies significantly in a cyclical manner, corresponding to the short maintenance time and repeated treatment of pollution in the watershed; of the impact subsystem shows an overall upward but a slightly slower trend, and it is related to the fact that the industrial structure of the basin still needs to be improved; and of the response subsystem shows an overall upward trend and a slightly larger increase, and the multi-actor collaborative management has helped a lot. The main barrier factors include key cross-sections’ water quality compliance rate, the water quality compliance rate of key water function areas, water consumption per 10,000 yuan of industrial added value, and the lake trophic status index. Based on the results of the study, the article gives recommendations for watershed governance, such as controlling pollution generation, optimising industrial structure, using technological tools to help governance, sharing the cost of governance among multiple parties and strengthening supervision The findings help to make scientific environmental protection planning and policies of the study region. The research can also provide experience for other countries and regions in watershed governance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Guangying Cui ◽  
Shanshuo Liu ◽  
Zhenguo Liu ◽  
Yuan Chen ◽  
Tianwen Wu ◽  

Objective: The gut microecosystem is the largest microecosystem in the human body and has been proven to be linked to neurological diseases. The main objective of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiome, investigate the differences between epilepsy patients and healthy controls, and evaluate the potential efficacy of the fecal microbiome as a diagnostic tool for epilepsy.Design: We collected 74 fecal samples from epilepsy patients (Eps, n = 24) and healthy controls (HCs, n = 50) in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University and subjected the samples to 16S rRNA MiSeq sequencing and analysis. We set up a train set and a test set, identified the optimal microbial markers for epilepsy after characterizing the gut microbiome in the former and built a diagnostic model, then validated it in the validation group.Results: There were significant differences in microbial communities between the two groups. The α-diversity of the HCs was higher than that of the epilepsy group, but the Venn diagram showed that there were more unique operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in the epilepsy group. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteriota increased significantly in Eps, while the relative abundance of Bacteroidota increased in HCs. Compared with HCs, Eps were enriched in 23 genera, including Faecalibacterium, Escherichia-Shigella, Subdoligranulum and Enterobacteriaceae-unclassified. In contrast, 59 genera including Bacteroides, Megamonas, Prevotella, Lachnospiraceae-unclassified and Blautia increased in the HCs. In Spearman correlation analysis, age, WBC, RBC, PLT, ALB, CREA, TBIL, Hb and Urea were positively correlated with most of the different OTUs. Seizure-type, course and frequency are negatively correlated with most of the different OTUs. In addition, twenty-two optimal microbial markers were identified by a fivefold cross-validation of the random forest model. In the established train set and test set, the area under the curve was 0.9771 and 0.993, respectively.Conclusion: Our study was the first to characterize the gut microbiome of Eps and HCs in central China and demonstrate the potential efficacy of microbial markers as a noninvasive biological diagnostic tool for epilepsy.

2022 ◽  
Jiahui Li ◽  
Haina Liu ◽  
Bingbing Dai ◽  
Zhijun Fan ◽  
Qiao Wang ◽  

Abstract Objective Serum amyloid A4 (SAA4) is an apolipoprotein that is associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. In this present investigation, we appraised the potential of SAA4 as a novel diagnostic biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) combined with other established RA biomarkers, including anticitrullinated protein antibody (anti-CCP), rheumatoid factor (RF),and C-reactive protein (CRP). Based on the correlative measures of the biomarkers, we developed a diagnostic model of RA by integrating serum levels of SAA4 with these clinical parameters. Methods A number of 316 patients were recruited in the current research. The serum levels of SAA4 were assessed by quantitative ELISA. The specificity and sensitivity of biomarkers were evaluated by using a receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis to determine their diagnostic efficiency. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to screen and construct the diagnostic models for RA , consisting of diagnostic biomarkers and clinical data. A diagnostic nomogram was then generated based on logistic regression analysis results. Results The serum levels of SAA4 were considerably greatest in RA patients in comparison to other control subjects (P<0.001). Compared with anti-CCP, RF and CRP respectively, SAA4 had the highest specificity (88.60%) for diagnosing RA. The combination of SAA4 with anti-CCP could have the highest diagnostic accuracy when paired together, with highest sensitivity (91.14%) in parallel and highest specificity(98.10) in series. We successfully developed two diagnostic models: the combined model of SAA4 and anti-CCP (model A), and the combined model of SAA4, CRP, anti-CCP, RF and history of diabetes (model B). Both models showed a great area under the curve of ROC for either the training cohort or the validation cohort. The data indicated that the novel RA diagnostic models possessed an advantageous discrimination capacity and application potential. Conclusion Serum SAA4 has utility as a biomarker for RA’s diagnosis and can enhance the detection of RA when combined with anti-CCP.

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