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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 827-833
Author(s):  
Zhonge Chen ◽  
Yanhua Tang ◽  
Wenyong Jiang ◽  
Xiaoqian Zhou

Aim: To evaluate Stard 3’s effects and relative mechanisms in preadipocyto differentiation by vitro study. Materials and Methods: The 3T3-L1 cell were divided into 5 groups as NC, si-Stard 3, ROS agonist, ROS inhibitor and si-Stard 3+ROS agonist groups. The cell of different groups were evaluated by Oil red O staining and Triglyceride. Evaluating ROS production by DHE and NBT assay. Using RT-qPCR and WB methods to evaluate gene and protein expressions. Results: Compared with NC group, Triglyceride, DHE fluorescence intensity and NBT positive rate were significantly down-regulation in si-Stard 3 and ROS inhibitor groups (P < 0.001, respectively), and were significantly up-regulation in ROS agonist group (P < 0.001, respectively); However, with si-Stard 3 transfection and ROS agonist treatment, compared with si-Stard 3 group, Triglyceride, DHE fluorescence intensity and NBT positive rate were significantly increased in si-Stard 3+ROS agonist group (P < 0.001, respectively). With RT-qPCR and WB assay, Compared with NC group, Stard 3 gene and protein expressions of si-Stard 3 and si-Stard 3+ROS agonist group were significantly depressed (P < 0.001, respectively), AMPK, PPARγ, CEBPα and FABP4 gene expressions were significantly differences in si-Stard 3, ROS agonist and ROS inhibitor groups (P < 0.001, respectively) and p-AMPK, PPARγ, CEBPα and FABP4 protein expressions were significantly differences in si-Stard 3, ROS agonist and ROS inhibitor groups (P < 0.001, respectively), with si-Stard 3 transfection and ROS agonist the relative gene and protein expressions were significantly resumed compared with si-Stard 3 group (P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Stard 3 knockdown had effects to suppress 3T3-L1 cells transformation into adipocytes in vitro study.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ye Zheng ◽  
Mingzhu Xu ◽  
Dong Zeng ◽  
Haitao Tong ◽  
Yuhan Shi ◽  
...  

Abstract Aims Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is the major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in East Asia. Here we aimed to further investigate the abundance of viral antigen and DNA within HBV-related HCC and surrounding tissues at histological level. Method In addition to routine histopathology, in situ hybridization (ISH) of HBV DNA and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of HBsAg were performed in tissues from 131 HBsAg-positive HCC patients undergoing liver resection. Serum α-fetoprotein together with basic biochemical and immunological parameter was also measured. Results Overall, the ISH of HBV DNA and IHC of HBsAg showed 31.3% and 92.9% positive rate respectively (p < 0.0001). The level of correlation between these two markers was much more significant in tumor (p < 0.0001) than in tumor-surrounding tissue (p = 0.01). HBsAg exhibited a much higher positive rate in tumor-adjacent tissue than in tumor tissue (86.6% versus 29.9%, p < 0.0001) with significantly different staining pattern. By contrast, the positive rate of HBV DNA ISH was comparable in tumor and surrounding tissue (17.6% versus 22.9%, p = 0.36). Yet the HBV DNA signal in tumor tissue showed predominant nuclear localization (87.0%) whereas staining pattern in adjacent tissue was mixed (43.3% nuclear localization, p = 0.0015). Finally, no significant association between intra-tumor HBV DNA/HBsAg positivity and major histological markers (microvascular invasion, tumor differentiation, etc.) or recurrence after surgery was observed. Conclusions These data confirmed the largely integrated state of HBV DNA, weaker expression and altered localization of surface antigen in tumor compared with surrounding tissue. The strikingly different prevalence and localization of HBsAg and HBV DNA reflected the complex and heterogeneous mechanisms leading to HBV-induced tumorigenesis.


Biosensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 45
Author(s):  
Xia Hong ◽  
Yin Cui ◽  
Ming Li ◽  
Yifan Xia ◽  
Daolin Du ◽  
...  

A magnetic-based immunoassay (MBI) combined with biotin-streptavidin amplification was proposed for butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) investigation and risk assessment. The values of LOD (limit of detection, IC10) and IC50 were 0.57 ng/mL and 119.61 ng/mL, with a detection range of 0.57–24977.71 ng/mL for MBI. The specificity, accuracy and precision are well demonstrated. A total of 36 environmental water samples of urban sewage from Zhenjiang, China, were collected and assessed for BBP contamination. The results show that BBP-positive levels ranged from 2.47 to 89.21 ng/mL, with a positive rate of 77.8%. The health effects of BBP in the urban sewage were within a controllable range, and the ambient severity for health (ASI) was below 1.49. The highest value of AS for ecology (ASII) was 7.43, which indicates a potential harm to ecology. The entropy value of risk quotient was below 100, the highest being 59.47, which poses a low risk to the environment and ecology, indicating that there is a need to strengthen BBP controls. The non-carcinogenic risk of BBP exposure from drinking water was higher for females than that for males, and the non-carcinogenic risk from drinking-water and bathing pathways was negligible. This study could provide an alternative method for detecting BBP and essential information for controlling BBP contamination.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiangli Lu ◽  
Ming Zhao ◽  
Chenyan Wu ◽  
Chengbiao Chu ◽  
Chris Zhiyi Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background UPK2 exhibits excellent specificity for urothelial carcinoma (UC). UPK2 evaluation can be useful in making the correct diagnosis of UC. However, UPK2 detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has relatively low sensitivity. This paper aimed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity of RNAscope and IHC for evaluation of the UPK2 status in UC. Methods Tissue blocks from 127 conventional bladder UCs, 45 variant bladder UCs, 24 upper tract UCs and 23 metastatic UCs were selected for this study. IHC and RNAscope were used to detect the UPK2 status in UCs. Then, comparisons of the two methods were undertaken. Results There was no significant difference between RNAscope and IHC for the evaluation of the UPK2 positivity rate in UC (68.0% vs. 62.6%, P = 0.141). Correlation analysis revealed a moderate positive correlation for detection of UPK2: RNAscope vs. IHC (P < 0.001, R = 0.441). Our results showed a trend toward a higher positive UPK2 rate detected by RNAscope (53.3%) than by IHC (35.6%) in variant bladder UCs. Disappointingly, the P value did not indicate a significant difference (P = 0.057). Conclusions RNAscope for UPK2 appeared to perform similarly to IHC, with a marginally higher positive rate, suggesting it could be used as an alternative or adjunct to UPK2 IHC.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaohua Liang ◽  
Yajun Sun ◽  
Lun Xiao ◽  
YanLing Ren ◽  
Xian Tang

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study is to analyze the positive rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid testing (NAT), cases of and deaths due to SARS-CoV-2, and the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 to identify high-risk populations.MethodsA retrospective study in Jiulongpo district of Chongqing was conducted by performing continuous observations of the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 NAT, analyzing the data of close contacts of patients and asymptomatic carriers, and collecting epidemiological data. Data were collected from January 20, 2020, when the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported, to March 26, 2020. Descriptive statistical analysis and Cochrane–Mantel–Haenszel analysis were used to compare the positive detection rates and positive diagnostic rates of different exposure groups.ResultsA total of 7,118 people received 10,377 SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests in one district, and the SARS-CoV-2 positive rates were 0.40% (18/4446) and 0.15% (4/2672) in people receiving one and ≥ two nucleic acid tests (p = 0.06), respectively. Those with suspected cases (12.35%) and close contacts (8%) had higher positive rates than people tested at fever clinics (0.39%) (p &lt; 0.001). The median latency (range) of cases was 5 (2, 9) days, and the median time from diagnosis to recovery was 22 (14, 25) days. One recovered patient received a positive test result at 28 days after recovery when she attempted to donate blood. Six clustered cases, including one patient who died, indicated persistent human-to-human transmission. One patient who was diagnosed after death was found to have infected 13 close contacts. People working in catering and other public service departments (36.36%) and people who are unemployed and retirees (45.45%) have an increased risk of infection compared with technical staff (9.09%) and farmers (9.09%).ConclusionThe total positive rate was low in the tested population, and more effective detection ranges should be defined to improve precise and differentiated epidemic control strategies. Moreover, in asymptomatic carriers, SARS-CoV-2 tests were positive after recovery, and patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection who die may pose serious potential transmission threats.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 381
Author(s):  
Carolina Filizzola ◽  
Angelo Corrado ◽  
Nicola Genzano ◽  
Mariano Lisi ◽  
Nicola Pergola ◽  
...  

The paper provides, for the first time, a long-term (>10 years) analysis of anomalous transients in Earth’s emitted radiation over Turkey and neighbouring regions. The RST (Robust Satellite Techniques) approach is used to identify Significant Sequences of Thermal Anomalies (SSTAs) over about 12 years (May 2004 to October 2015) of night-time MSG-SEVIRI satellite images. The correlation analysis is performed with earthquakes with M ≥ 4, which occurred in the investigated period/region within a pre-defined space-time volume around SSTA occurrences. It confirms, also for Turkey, the possibility to qualify SSTAs among the candidate parameters of a multi-parametric system for time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH). After analysing about 4000 images (about 400 million of single satellite records), just 155 SSTAs (about 4 every 100 images) were isolated; 115 (74% out of the total) resulted in earthquake-related (false-positive rate 26%). Results of the error diagram confirms a non-casual correlation between RST-based SSTAs and earthquake occurrences, with probability gain values up to 2.2 in comparison with the random guess. The analysis, separately performed on Turkish areas characterized by different faults and earthquakes densities, demonstrates the SSTA correlation with a dynamic seismicity more than with static tectonic settings.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Peter Ma ◽  
Cherry Ng ◽  
Leandro Rizk ◽  
Steve Croft ◽  
Andrew Siemion ◽  
...  

Abstract The goal of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is to quantify the prevalence of technological life beyond Earth via their “technosignatures". One theorized technosignature are narrowband Doppler drifting radio signals. The principal challenge in conducting SETI in the radio domain is developing a generalized technique to reject human radio frequency interference (RFI) that dominate the features across the band in searches for technosignatures. Here, we present the first comprehensive deep-learning based technosignature search to date, returning 8 promising ETI signals-of-interest for re-observation as part of the Breakthrough Listen initiative. The search comprises 820 unique targets observed with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, totaling over 480 hr of on-sky data. We implement a novel β−Convolutional Variational Autoencoder with an embedded discriminator combined with Random Forest Decision Trees to classify technosignature candidates in a semiunsupervised manner. We compare our results with prior classical techniques on the same dataset and conclude that our algorithm returns more convincing and novel signals-of-interest with a manageable false positive rate. This new approach presents itself as a leading solution in accelerating SETI and other transient research into the age of data-driven astronomy.


Author(s):  
Jodi M. Gilman ◽  
William A. Schmitt ◽  
Kevin Potter ◽  
Brian Kendzior ◽  
Gladys N. Pachas ◽  
...  

AbstractThe primary cannabinoid in cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), causes intoxication and impaired function, with implications for traffic, workplace, and other situational safety risks. There are currently no evidence-based methods to detect cannabis-impaired driving, and current field sobriety tests with gold-standard, drug recognition evaluations are resource-intensive and may be prone to bias. This study evaluated the capability of a simple, portable imaging method to accurately detect individuals with THC impairment. In this double-blind, randomized, cross-over study, 169 cannabis users, aged 18–55 years, underwent functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) before and after receiving oral THC and placebo, at study visits one week apart. Impairment was defined by convergent classification by consensus clinical ratings and an algorithm based on post-dose tachycardia and self-rated “high.” Our primary outcome, PFC oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (HbO), was increased after THC only in participants operationalized as impaired, independent of THC dose. ML models using fNIRS time course features and connectivity matrices identified impairment with 76.4% accuracy, 69.8% positive predictive value (PPV), and 10% false-positive rate using convergent classification as ground truth, which exceeded Drug Recognition Evaluator-conducted expanded field sobriety examination (67.8% accuracy, 35.4% PPV, and 35.4% false-positive rate). These findings demonstrate that PFC response activation patterns and connectivity produce a neural signature of impairment, and that PFC signal, measured with fNIRS, can be used as a sole input to ML models to objectively determine impairment from THC intoxication at the individual level. Future work is warranted to determine the specificity of this classifier to acute THC impairment.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03655717


Author(s):  
Li Zheng ◽  
Weihua Pei ◽  
Xiaorong Gao ◽  
Lijian Zhang ◽  
Yijun Wang

Abstract Objective. Asynchronous brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are more practical and natural compared to synchronous BCIs. A brain switch is a standard asynchronous BCI, which can automatically detect the specified change of the brain and discriminate between the control state and the idle state. The current brain switches still face challenges on relatively long reaction time (RT) and high false positive rate (FPR). Approach. In this paper, an online electroencephalography-based brain switch is designed to realize a fast reaction and keep long idle time (IDLE) without false positives (FPs) using code-modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEPs). Two stimulation paradigms were designed and compared in the experiments: multi-code concatenate modulation (concatenation mode) and single-code periodic modulation (periodic mode). Using a task-related component analysis-based detection algorithm, EEG data can be decoded into a series of code indices. Brain states can be detected by a template matching approach with a sliding window on the output series. Main results. The online experiments achieved an average RT of 1.49 seconds when the average IDLE for each FP was 68.57 minutes (1.46e-2 FP/min) or an average RT of 1.67 seconds without FPs. Significance. This study provides a practical c-VEP based brain switch system with both fast reaction and low FPR during idle state, which can be used in various BCI applications.


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