AbstractBy using the temperature dependence of viscosity, we introduce a novel type of microfluidic lab-on-a-chip back pressure regulator (BPR) that can be integrated into a micro-total-analysis-system. A BPR is an important component used to gain pressure control and maintain elevated pressures in e.g. chemical extractions, synthesis, and analyses. Such applications have been limited in microfluidics, since the back pressure regularly has been attained by passive restrictors or external large-scale BPRs. Herein, an active microfluidic BPR is presented, consisting of a glass chip with integrated thin-film heaters and thermal sensors. It has no moving parts but a fluid restrictor where the flow resistance is controlled by the change of viscosity with temperature. Performance was evaluated by regulating the upstream pressure of methanol or water using a PID controller. The developed BPR has the smallest reported dead volume of 3 nL and the thermal actuation has time constants of a few seconds. The pressure regulation were reproducible with a precision in the millibar range, limited by the pressure sensor. The time constant of the pressure changes was evaluated and its dependence of the total upstream volume and the compressibility of the liquids is introduced.
An experimental and theoretical study of three-component mixing at the “diffusion – convection” boundary at elevated pressures is carried out. It is shown that the pressure dependence of the dimensionless parameter α, defined as the ratio of the experimental values of the component concentrations to those calculated by the Stefan-Maxwell equations, has characteristic regions due to the interaction of structural formations moving towards each other, in which a transition from one critical motion to another occurs. Within the framework of a linear analysis of the stability of a ternary gas mixture for a vertical circular cylinder channel, it is shown that scale perturbations determining the transition from one type of flow to another correspond to a certain value of the perturbation mode n and the critical Rayleigh numbers.
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the leading cause of poisoning-related deaths globally. The currently available therapy options are normobaric oxygen (NBO) and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). While NBO lacks in efficacy, HBO is not available in all areas and countries. We present a novel method, extracorporeal hyperoxygenation therapy (EHT), for the treatment of CO poisoning that eliminates the CO by treating blood extracorporeally at elevated oxygen partial pressure. In this study, we proof the principle of the method in vitro using procine blood: Firstly, we investigated the difference in the CO elimination of a hollow fibre membrane oxygenator and a specifically designed batch oxygenator based on the bubble oxygenator principle at elevated pressures (1, 3 bar). Secondly, the batch oxygenator was redesigned and tested for a broader range of pressures (1, 3, 5, 7 bar) and temperatures (23, 30, 37 °C). So far, the shortest measured carboxyhemoglobin half-life in the blood was 21.32 min. In conclusion, EHT has the potential to provide an easily available and effective method for the treatment of CO poisoning.
CHn is the precursor unit for graphene synthesis. We have theoretically predicated a series of CHn structures with n = 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 at elevated pressures (ambient pressure, 50, 100, 200, 300, 350, and 400 GPa) using evolutionary algorithms. The predicted CH and CH2 structures are graphane-type and polyethylene over the whole considered pressure range, respectively. The molecular crystalline methane is predicted for the stoichiometry of CH4. The combination of methane and H2 for CH6, CH8, CH10, and CH12 up to 300 GPa are obtained. At 400 GPa, the mixture of polymer and H2 for CH6, CH10, and CH12 comes into play. From the computed enthalpy, higher pressure and more hydrogen concentration contributed to the decomposition (to carbon and H2) of CHn systems. The total density of states for these CHn structures show that only the CH12 phase is metallic above 300 GPa. The rotational properties are traced in H2 and the CHn structures. The CH4 rotation is more sensitive to the pressure. The H2 units are nearly freely rotational. Other structures of CHn, including fcc-type and experimentally known structures, are not competitive with the structures predicted by evolutionary algorithms under high pressure region. Our results suggest that the CHn (n > 4) system is a potential candidate for hydrogen storage where H2 could be released by controlling the pressure.