Back Pressure
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Karolina Svensson ◽  
Simon Södergren ◽  
Klas Hjort

AbstractBy using the temperature dependence of viscosity, we introduce a novel type of microfluidic lab-on-a-chip back pressure regulator (BPR) that can be integrated into a micro-total-analysis-system. A BPR is an important component used to gain pressure control and maintain elevated pressures in e.g. chemical extractions, synthesis, and analyses. Such applications have been limited in microfluidics, since the back pressure regularly has been attained by passive restrictors or external large-scale BPRs. Herein, an active microfluidic BPR is presented, consisting of a glass chip with integrated thin-film heaters and thermal sensors. It has no moving parts but a fluid restrictor where the flow resistance is controlled by the change of viscosity with temperature. Performance was evaluated by regulating the upstream pressure of methanol or water using a PID controller. The developed BPR has the smallest reported dead volume of 3 nL and the thermal actuation has time constants of a few seconds. The pressure regulation were reproducible with a precision in the millibar range, limited by the pressure sensor. The time constant of the pressure changes was evaluated and its dependence of the total upstream volume and the compressibility of the liquids is introduced.

2022 ◽  
Joseph H. Frantz ◽  
Matthew L. Tourigny

Abstract Coiled tubing units (CTU) have been used to drill-out frac plugs in shorter horizontal shale wells for the last decade, but coil has mechanical limitations. The new innovative technology of Hydraulic Completion Snubbing Units (HCU) is gaining popularity across North and South America to drill-out frac plugs in long lateral, high-pressure, and multi-well pads. The HCU is designed for drill-outs and interventions where coil may not be the best option. This paper will summarize the recent evolution of the HCU system. Case histories will be provided from the Appalachian and Permian shale plays. The latest HCU consists of a stand-alone unit that mounts on the wellhead after completion. The primary components include the jack assembly, a gin pole, traveling/stationary slips, a redundant series of primary/secondary blowout preventers, a rotary table, power tongs, and an equalize/bleed off loop. Tubing up to 5 ½" is used to carry a downhole motor, dual back pressure values, and the drill bit. Slickwater is used for the drilling fluid to carry out parts from the frac plugs while the tubing is rotated via the jack rotary table. Torque and drag modeling are performed to guide downhole expectations that allow most wells to be drilled in one trip and with one bit without short trips back to the heel or bottom- hole vibration assembly tools. Finally, a remote telemetry data acquisition system has been added that summarizes the drilling data and key performance indicators. In 2016, a North American operator drilled and completed the first super lateral in the Appalachian Basin, setting the completed lateral record at over 18,500 ft. Since then, many operators have been routinely drilling laterals between 12,000 ft and 16,000 ft. HCU technology has been used in the longest laterals in onshore North America, including the lower 48 U.S records for completed lateral length (LL) at 20,800 ft and the total measured depth (MD) record at 30,677 ft. The average lateral contains between 60 to 90 plugs and can be drilled out in 3.5 to 4.5 days. The record number of plugs drilled out by an HCU is 144 and took 5.2 days. High-pressure wells are also routinely encountered where pressures range from 3000 to 8000 psi during operations. Operators are achieving faster drilling times per plug, less chemical usage, faster moves between wells, and running tubing immediately after the drill-out, thus eliminating the need for a service rig. Operator's desire to reach total depth with the least risk and as cost-efficiently as possible resulted in the HCU gaining market acceptance. This paper will showcase the novel evolution of the HCU system that has enabled it to be a safe and effective option for interventions outside of just frac plug drill-outs such as fishing for stuck/parted coil or wireline and installing production tubing/artificial lift systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 36 (06) ◽  

The diesel combustion is primarily controlled by the fuel injection process. The start of injection therefore has a significant effect in the engine, which relates large amount of injected fuel at the beginning of injection to produces a strong burst of combustion with a high local temperature and high NOx formation. This paper investigated the impact of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) and blends of 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, 80% by mass of HVO with commercial diesel fuel (mixed 7% FAME-B7) to injection process under the Zeuch’s method and compared to that of B7. The focus was on the injection flow rate in the variation of injection pressures, back pressures, and energizing times. The experimental results indicated that injection delay was inversely correlated to HVO fraction in the blend as well as injection pressure. At different injection pressures, HVO revealed a slightly lower injection rate than diesel that resulted in smaller injection quantity. Discharge coefficient was recognized larger with HVO and its blends. At 0.5ms of energizing time, injection rate profile displayed the incompletely opening of needle. Insignificant difference in injection rate was observed as increasing of back pressure.

2022 ◽  
Craig A. Nordeen ◽  
Douglas A. Schwer

Shumeng Guan ◽  
Fen Zhou ◽  
Shaojie Du ◽  
Mu Pan

Abstract Optimization of the interface between the catalyst layer (CL) and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) plays an important role in performance enhancement in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Here, a rolled technique was used to optimize the PEM|CL interface to obtain a smooth CL surface with decreased roughness from 0.347 to 0.266 μm due to the reduction of protrusions after the rolled process. Advantages of the optimized PEM|CL interface formed after decal transfer method were carefully evaluated. First, the internal resistance of the rolled CL is significantly reduced from 61.5 to 47.5 mΩ [email protected] mA/cm2, which is ascribed to the higher contact area between CL and PEM. Meanwhile, owning to the alleviation of liquid water accumulation at the interface, the oxygen transport resistance at no back pressure of CL dropped from 0.21 to 0.15 s/cm. The relieved ohm polarization and mass transfer polarization promote a 28.5% increase of performance. Rolled technique with proper calendrer roll space could result in an optimized interface with well-maintained internal structural integrity of CL. However, a lower calendrer roll gap will damage the structure of CL and have a negative effect on the interface optimization.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 8519
Nikolay Rogalev ◽  
Vladimir Kindra ◽  
Ivan Komarov ◽  
Sergey Osipov ◽  
Olga Zlyvko ◽  

Thermal power plants (TPPs) with back-pressure steam turbines (BPSTs) were widely used for electricity and steam production in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) due to their high efficiency. The collapse of the USSR in 1991 led to a decrease in industrial production, as a result of which, steam production in Russia was reduced and BPSTs were left without load. To resume the operation of TPPs with BPSTs, it is necessary to modernize the existing power units. This paper presents the results of the thermodynamic analysis of different methods of modernization of TPPs with BPSTs: the superstructure of the steam low-pressure turbine (LPT) and the superstructure of the power unit operating on low-boiling-point fluid. The influence of ambient temperature on the developed cycles’ efficiency was evaluated. It was found that the usage of low-boiling-point fluid is thermodynamically efficient for an ambient temperature lower than 7 °C. Moreover, recommendations for the choice of reconstruction method were formulated based on technical assessments.

Separations ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 246
Naser F. Al-Tannak ◽  
Ahmed Hemdan

Efficient separation of pharmaceuticals and metabolites with the adequate resolution is a key factor in choosing the most suitable chromatographic method. For quality control, the analysis time is a key factor, especially in pharmacokinetic studies. High back pressure is considered as one of the most important factors in chromatography’s flow control, especially in UHPLC. The separation of the anti-hyperlipidemic mixtures was carried out using two columns: a column silica-based particle packed UHPLC and a monolithic column. The systematic suitability of the two columns was compared for the separation of Fenofibrate, its active metabolite, Fenofibric acid and Pravastatin using Atorvastatin as an internal standard. Separation on both columns was obtained using ethanol: buffer potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate pH = 3 (adjusted with orthophosphoric acid) (75:25 v/v) as mobile phase and flow rate 0.8 mL/min. The analytes’ peak detection was achieved by using a PDA detector at 287 nm, 214 nm, 236 nm, and 250 nm for Fenofibrate, Fenofibric acid, Pravastatin, and Atorvastatin, respectively. Reduction of back-pressure was achieved with the monolithic column, where the analytes could be completely separated in less than 1.5 min at a flow rate of 5 mL/min. The principles of Green Analytical Chemistry (GAC) were followed throughout the developed method using environmentally safe solvents.

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