Medicinal Properties
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 207-230
D Pugazhendhi

The Greek and Tamil people did sea trade from the pre-historic times. Sandalwood is seen only in Tamil land and surrounding places. It is also one of the items included in the trade. The Greek word ‘σανταλίνων’ is first mentioned in the ancient Greek works around the middle of the first century CE. The fact that the word is related to Tamil, but the etymologist did not acknowledge the same, rather they relate it to other languages. As far as its uses are concerned, it is not found in the ancient Greek literatures. One another type of wood ‘κέδρου’ cedar is also mentioned in the ancient Greek literature with the medicinal properties similar to ‘σανταλίνων’. In the same way the use of the Hebrew Biblical word ‘Almuggim -אַלְמֻגִּ֛ים’ which is the word used for sandalwood, also denotes teak wood. This shows that in these words, there are possibilities of some semantic changes such as semantic shift or broadening. Keywords: biblical word, Greek, Hebrew, Sandalwood, Tamil

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 1566
Kolajo Adedamola Akinyede ◽  
Christopher Nelson Cupido ◽  
Gail Denise Hughes ◽  
Oluwafemi Omoniyi Oguntibeju ◽  
Okobi Eko Ekpo

The genus Helichrysum Mill comprises hundreds of species that are mostly flowering perennial shrubs. Some of these plants that belong to the Helichrysum species are used in traditional medicine to treat cough, back pain, diabetes, asthma, digestive problems, menstrual pain, chest pain, kidney disorders, skin disorders, wounds, open sores, among other conditions, but, only a few scientific studies are reported in the literature with sufficient information that validates the acclaimed folkloric benefits of these plants. This review, therefore, provides a comprehensive update of the available information on the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, anti-proliferative, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-HIV, anti-malarial, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-tyrosinase, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities of selected Helichrysum species of interest: H. petiolare, H. cymocum, H. foetidum, and H. pandurifolium Schrank, using scientific databases as well as electronic and print sources. The ethnobotanical and morphological characteristics as well as the phytochemical composition and biological activities of these plants are elucidated. The scientific rationale for their current use is discussed based on the evidence in the literature. This review highlights the putative use of the Helichrysum species as a reliable source of bioactive compounds for the production of standard commercial drugs to treat many ailments, including those reported in folkloric uses. Further research on the many plants in the genus Helichrysum is recommended to explore their economic importance both as edible crops and medicinal botanicals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 123-130
Zuhdi Arman ◽  
Michael Jibrael Rorong ◽  
Irene Svinarky

The spread of drugs in Indonesia, which is increasing every year, is increasing by the large population of Indonesia's population. Indonesia is one of the extraordinary markets for drug mafia to bring these illegal goods into the archipelago. The largest number of drug users in Indonesia from year to year are still dominated by students, in this case students and school children, especially high school and junior high school levels. In the medical world, drugs can be medicinal properties for healing. Drug use in the medical world is legal. So what becomes a policeman is when someone consumes drugs without the supervision of a health professional or doctor. If someone uses drugs without the supervision of a doctor, they think it will be very dangerous because drug users are because drugs are poisonous substances that can cause drug users to always depend or be addicted to these drugs, damage organs, affect a person's decline or make thoughts do not become irrational and damage the brain permanently. The result is even more terrible, which leads to death. The abuse of narcotics and illicit drugs among the younger generation is increasing. The proliferation of deviant behavior of the young generation can endanger the survival of this nation in the future. Because youth, as the generation expected to become the nation's successor, are increasingly vulnerable to being eaten away by nerve-destroying addictive substances. So that the young man could not think clearly. As a result, the generation of hope for a nation that is strong and intelligent will only be a memory. The target for the spread of these drugs is young people or teenagers.

2021 ◽  
pp. 143-147
Helmina Wati ◽  
Rahmi Muthia ◽  
Kartini ◽  
Finna Setiawan

Introduction: Eleutherine bulbosa Urb is a plant species with medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, widely relied upon in traditional practices. For this reason, the present research was intended to assess and, thus, ensure the safety of this plant for conventional medicinal purposes using a toxicity test study. Methods: The acute toxicity test of the ethanolic extract of E. bulbosa Urb (EEEB) used the method adopted from the Organization Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines 425 for testing Wistar rats. Results: During 14 days of the acute toxicity study, there were no significant changes in rat weight, no mortality, and no signs of toxicity after the oral EEEB administration at 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw). The limit test showed that the LD50 of EEEB was higher than 2000 mg/kg bw. Conclusion: EEEB has low toxicity because its LD50 is higher than the limit test results.

2021 ◽  
James Nyirenda ◽  
Gershom B. Lwanga ◽  
Kaampwe M. Muzandu ◽  
David K. Chuba ◽  
Gibson M. Sijumbila

Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevanceAnemia is a very serious condition in Zambia. One of the plants that has been used traditionally is Phyllanthus muellerianus where different parts of shrub are used to treat a number of diseases in Zambian folklore medicine. Earlier studies have investigated medicinal properties of its aqueous root extracts. This study evaluated the effect of P. muellerianus roots on the hematological indices of albino rats and determined its phytochemical profile. Aim of the studyTo carry out phytochemical screening of the root extract and assess the ant-anemic effect of the aqueous extract on laboratory rats with tail-bled induced anemia Materials and MethodsThirty-six male albino rats placed in six groups were used for the study. The groups comprised the 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg plant extract, Ranferon (200 mg/kg) positive control, anemic non treated control and a normal (non-anemic) control. Anemia, induced through bleeding of the rats, was defined as hemoglobin (Hb) levels less than 12 g/dL. The anti-anemic potential of the plant was determined by comparing its effect on the hematological parameters of rats on treatment to that of the control group.ResultsAfter treatment, rats on the 400 mg/kg plant extract dose showed the greatest increase in the mean values for Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV) and RBC count were 43.3±1.2%, 15.4±0.3 g/dL and 6.3±0.3 x106 /mL respectively, when compared to the negative control group (P < 0.05). Phytochemical screening revealed positive results for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, steroids, triterpenoids and tannins with varying amounts.Conclusions. The aqueous root extract of P. muellerianus was efficacious against anemia in a dose-dependent manner. The phytochemical compositions seem to be responsible for its hematopoietic properties. Thus, the root decoction of P. muellerianus is useful in alleviating anemia and the results lend credence to its use in traditional medicine in the management of anemia.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 286-298
Mercy Badu ◽  
Mary-Magdalene Pedavoah ◽  
Nathaniel O Boadi ◽  
Irene Y Dzaye

This study evaluated the nutritional and medicinal properties of seeds from Adansonia digitata (BSF) and Balanite aegyptiaca (DDSF) plant. Proximate chemical composition, mineral elements composition, flavonoids, phenolics, antioxidant capacity, and anti-inflammatory properties were studied. Results obtained revealed that DDSF had the highest moisture, crude fat and crude protein content of 7.66 %, 42.80 %, 20.37 % respectively, whilst BSF gave the highest ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate content. Elemental analysis revealed BSF had the highest Mg content (313.65 mg/100g) and DDSF gave the highest Ca content (118.62 mg/100g). Additionally, DDSF gave the highest total phenolics (18.89 mg TAE/ 100 g), total flavonoids (8.80 mg QE/ 100 g) as well as the highest total antioxidant capacity of (19.62 mg AAE/ 100 g) dry of extract. Based on results obtained in this study, seeds obtained from the Adansonia digitata and Balanite aegyptiaca could be a potential source of functional food and antioxidant agents.

Rakesh Kumar

Leguminosae is one of the largest family with three sub-families and it has a great ethno-botanical and ethno-medicinal importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the Chhattisgarh. Leguminous plants are widely used for many purposes by peoples of rural areas and it includes many important cultivated economic food crops. The research work was initiated to get information and reports the traditional and medicinal uses of the family leguminosae by tribal peoples of Chhattisgarh. The paper also deals with an account of endemic and rare plants of Leguminosae existence of Chhattisgarh. In our field survey we got 3 rare plants species Alysicarpus bupleurifolicus, Flemingia stricta,and Zornia gibbosa belonging to Papilionatae sub-family. They had highly medicinal properties that’s why their more exploitation done by tribal people and get become a rare plant species which is also included in BSI report of endemic and rare plants of Chhattisgarh 2004. A total of 63 medicinal plant species are used by the local health healer for the treatment of different disease. The medicinal plants used by the traditional users of Rajnandgaon and Balod district are arranged alphabetically followed by botanical name, common name, flowering time, habit and their uses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Sharifah Nadhira Syed Annuar ◽  
Nurul Farahana Kamaludin ◽  
Normah Awang ◽  
Kok Meng Chan

Organotin(IV) compounds have wide applications in industrial and agricultural fields owing to their ability to act as poly(vinyl chloride) stabilizers and catalytic agents as well as their medicinal properties. Moreover, organotin(IV) compounds may have applications as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, or antimicrobial agents based on the observation of synergistic effects following the binding of their respective ligands, resulting in the enhancement of their biological activities. In this review, we describe the antiproliferative activities of organotin(IV) compounds in various human cancer cell lines based on different types of ligands. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms through which organotin(IV) compounds induce cell death via apoptosis through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. Finally, we present the mechanisms of cell cycle arrest induced by organotin(IV) compounds. Our report provides a basis for studies of the antitumor activities of organotin(IV) compounds and highlights the potential applications of these compounds as anticancer metallodrugs with low toxicity and few side effects.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 1709
Célia Faustino ◽  
Lídia Pinheiro

Honey has been used as a nutraceutical product since ancient times due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. Honey rheology influences its organoleptic properties and is relevant for processing and quality control. This review summarizes the rheological behaviour of honeys of different botanical source(s) and geographical locations that has been described in the literature, focusing on the relation between rheological parameters, honey composition (moisture, water activity, sugar content, presence of colloidal matter) and experimental conditions (temperature, time, stress, shear rate). Both liquid and crystallized honeys have been addressed. Firstly, the main mathematical models used to describe honey rheological behaviour are presented highlighting moisture and temperature effects. Then, rheological data from the literature regarding distinct honey types from different countries is analysed and results are compared. Although most honeys are Newtonian fluids, interesting shear-thinning and thixotropic as well as anti-thixotropic behaviour have been described for some types of honey. Rheological parameters have also been successfully applied to identify honey adulteration and to discriminate between different honey types. Several chemometric techniques have also been employed to obtain the complex relationships between honey physicochemical and rheological properties, including partial least squares (PLS), principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural networks (ANN).

Verma Dr. Amit Kumar

Vorticella stalk is the storehouse of two types of novel proteins, known with the names of spasmins and batonnets. On the basis of nature of proteins and the arrangements of amino acid residues of these proteins, the repeated consequential cyclic processes of contraction dynamics worked by neutralizing the negatively charged amino acid residues as per the laws obeyed by Heber-Weiss, Nernst and Fenton reactions. H+-integrated physiological performances in combination with pCa (partial pressure of calcium ion concentrations) and DNFB (2,4 – dinitrofluorobenzene/Sanger’s reagent) concentration gradients at the range of 1mM to 5mM represented velocity inclination in acidic medium which were more actively pronounced if it was compared with alkaline medium where permeabilized stalk exaggerated potential biochemical-shift-perturbation if it was in respect of non-permeabilized live specimens in both artificial as well as in natural medium in different experimental trials under controlled electro-physiological instrumental setup conditions. On the basis of these experimental designs it was confirmed that spasmins and batonnets are two different types of novel proteins with multitudes of potential applications in the favour of biomedical engineering devices formulation, then their construction at the nano-scale where H+-integrated pCa dependent electrophysiological nature of recommended proteins were found more ROS (reactive oxygen species) resistant if there was the introduction of DNFB in fixed concentrations than in the acto-myosin as well as tubulin-dynein systems being exclusively controlled under post-translational biochemical reactions catalysed in the light of software based modern bioinformatics’ tools and techniques. In live as well as permeabilized specimens, different types of biochemical reaction kinetics of amino acid residues were performed at different rates among the sequentially determined spasmins and batonnets like novel proteins where molecular orientations and motive-force generation in measurable parameters per millisecond confirmed the electrophysiological significance of Vorticella stalks’ on the basis of colligative nature of novel proteins of saccular compartments of spasmoneme, the well explained active contractile organelle of the stalk in relation with other resembling proteins found in Protein Data Bank (PDB) as centrins, calmodulins and others significantly pronounce their life saving and medicinal properties. This present statement/study was aimed to know the biochemical behaviour of spasmins and batonnets like novel proteins in the light of electrochemical behavior of the Vorticella stalk under some selective chemical stress conditions, that’s why this research helped us to know the ROS resistance properties of novel protein polymers found in stalk. On the basis of which reference proteins as described in this paper can be used as a diagnostic tools in pharmaceutical industries in the favour of molecular medicines and drugs’ designing.

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