Anchoring Effect
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Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 678
Yuqi Han ◽  
Yan Jiang ◽  
Wei Guo ◽  
Bing Li ◽  
Lu Zhang ◽  

Based on the anchoring effect due to the self-assembling behavior of the phospholipid molecules at the interface between the liquid crystal and water phases on the orientation of liquid crystals, the optical response associated with the orientation and structure of liquid crystals with respect to the concentration of 1,2-didodecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine solution has been investigated. The optical response owing to changes in the orientation and structure of the mixed cholesteric liquid crystals with respect to the change in the concentration of phosphatidylcholine has been obtained. Moreover, the feasibility of using as-prepared mixed cholesteric liquid crystals to measure the phosphatidylcholine concentration has been verified. A methodology to measure the reflectance spectrum by using mixed cholesteric liquid crystals to sensitize the phosphatidylcholine concentration has been further realized. The sensitization effect of the mixed cholesteric liquid crystals on the measurement of phosphatidylcholine concentration was also verified.

2021 ◽  
pp. 107769902110218
Marlis Stubenvoll ◽  
Jörg Matthes

Numbers can convey critical information about political issues, yet statistics are sometimes cited incorrectly by political actors. Drawing on real-world examples of numerical misinformation, the current study provides a first test of the anchoring bias in the context of news consumption. Anchoring describes how evidently wrong and even irrelevant numbers might change people’s judgments. Results of a survey experiment with a sample of N = 413 citizens indicate that even when individuals see a retraction and distrust the presented misinformation, they stay biased toward the initially seen inaccurate number.

2021 ◽  
Štěpán Bahník ◽  
Fritz Strack

An assimilation of an estimate towards a previously considered standard is defined as judgmental anchoring. Anchoring constitutes a ubiquitous phenomenon that occurs in a variety of laboratory and real-world settings. Anchoring effects are remarkably robust. They may occur even if the anchor values are clearly uninformative or implausibly extreme, are sometimes independent of participants’ motivation and expertise, and may persist over long periods of time. Different underlying mechanisms may contribute to the generation of anchoring effects. Specifically, anchoring may result from insufficient adjustment, from the use of conversational inferences, from selective accessibility of information consistent with an anchor, or from the distortion of a response scale.

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 496
Shuxue Ding ◽  
Yuan Gao ◽  
Hongwen Jing ◽  
Xinshuai Shi ◽  
Yanjun Qi ◽  

The existence of the weak interlayer in the roadway surrounding rock mass presents a huge threat to the stability of the underground structure and the safety of mining engineering. By the characteristics of strong adaptability, superior anchoring effect and high efficiency of construction, rock bolt has been widely applied in mine reinforcement. However, the influence of the weak interlayer on the compressive performance of the bolted rock mass is still poorly understood due to the challenges in constructing an efficient experimental platform and complex testing processes. Here, we used the self-developed test system to investigate the influence of the thickness, uniaxial compressive strength, and dip angle of the weak interlayer on the compressive behavior of the bolted rock mass with a single free surface. The results show that the weak interlayer has a great weakening effect on the peak strength and elastic modulus of the specimens due to its low mechanical properties, as well as influencing the crack distribution and failure mode of the samples. As the strength of the weak interlayer is lower than 1.27 MPa, the thickness exceeds 20 mm, and the dip angle exceeds 15°, the synergistic bearing effect will be significantly reduced and affect the mechanical performance of the specimens. The evolution of the bolt force and bending moment are greatly impacted by the deformation process which could be divided into distinct stages of destruction, thereby providing an excellent detection method for judging the stability of the surrounding rock of the mine. The discovery of this research promote a better understanding of the impact of the weak interlayer on mining engineering and guide the mine reinforcement in the future.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Sebastian Schindler ◽  
Jan Querengässer ◽  
Maximilian Bruchmann ◽  
Nele Johanna Bögemann ◽  
Robert Moeck ◽  

AbstractExamining personality traits as predictors of human behaviour is of high interest. There are several but inconclusive reported relationships of personality and the susceptibility to the “anchoring effect”, a tendency to adjust estimates towards a given anchor. To provide an answer to variably reported links between personality traits and the anchoring effect, we collected data from 1000 participants in the lab and validated typical anchoring effects and representative personality scores of the sample. Using Bayesian statistical data analyses, we found evidence for the absence of a relationship between anchoring effects and personality scores. We, therefore, conclude that there are no specific personality traits that relate to a higher susceptibility to the anchoring effect. The lack of a relationship between personality and the susceptibility to the anchoring effect might be due to the specific anchoring design, be limited to specific cognitive domains, or the susceptibility to anchors might reflect no reliable individual cognitive phenomena. In the next step, studies should examine the reliability of anchoring effects on the individual level, and testing relationships of individual traits and anchoring effects for other types of anchors, anchoring designs, or cognitive domains.

2021 ◽  
Vol 123 (13) ◽  
pp. 88-104
Luca Mulazzani ◽  
Laura Piredda ◽  
Marija Cerjak ◽  
Luca Camanzi

PurposeThe objective of this study is to assess if Italian fish consumers are sensible to shark protection and if they would contribute paying more for small pelagic fishes coming from fisheries that are certified as “shark-free”.Design/methodology/approachContingent valuation is used to estimate willingness to pay with a double approach, including a dichotomous choice and an open-ended question. Inconsistency between the two answers is allowed. This allows the correction of two sources of bias (i.e. preference uncertainty and anchoring effect) and has permitted that the two estimation methods converged to the same result.FindingsConsumers show interest for the “shark-free” label. Premium price is estimated at +26%. Variables affecting willingness to pay (WTP) in the sample are age, income, environmental attitude, knowledge of organic labels and frequency of small pelagics' consumption. Results need to be confirmed by a replication on a larger (probabilistic) sample and with a different distribution of bids.Originality/valueEcosystems provide different benefits to humankind, including non-use services, such as the satisfaction to know that a species is well conserved. Generally, appreciation is higher for what are considered charismatic species. In this paper, the authors investigate if sharks can be considered charismatic species despite their “bad reputation”. The interest in shark survival is measured indirectly using a “shark-free” label on a commercial species like anchovy, allowing to increase the value added of this low-price species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yutaro Onuki ◽  
Hidehito Honda ◽  
Kazuhiro Ueda

The anchoring effect is a form of cognitive bias in which exposure to some piece of information affects its subsequent numerical estimation. Previous studies have discussed which stimuli, such as numbers or semantic priming stimuli, are most likely to induce anchoring effects. However, it has not been determined whether anchoring effects will occur when a number is presented alone or when the semantic priming stimuli have an equivalent dimension between a target and the stimuli without a number. We conducted five experimental studies (N = 493) using stimuli to induce anchoring effects. We found that anchoring effects did not occur when a number was presented alone or when phrases to induce semantic priming were used without presenting a number. These results indicate that both numerical and semantic priming stimuli must be presented for anchoring effects to occur. Our findings represent a substantial contribution to the literature on anchoring effects by offering insights into how these effects are generated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 104-118
Kamila Urban ◽  
Marek Urban

Preschool children are generally inaccurate at evaluating past and predicting future performance. The present study examines the effect of performance feedback on the accuracy of preschoolers’ predictive judgments and tests whether performance feedback acts as an anchor for postdictive judgments. In Experiment 1, preschool children (n = 40) solved number patterns, and in Experiment 2 they solved object patterns (n = 59). The results in both experiments revealed, firstly, that children receiving performance feedback made more accurate predictive judgments and lowered their certainty after their incorrect answer. Secondly, the children relied on performance feedback more than on actual task experience when making postdictive judgments, indicating that performance feedback was used as an anchor for subsequent postdictive judgments.

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