antioxidant enzymes
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
G. S. Vicente-Ferreira ◽  
G. S. Martins ◽  
N. A. Chaves ◽  
D. G. H. Silva ◽  
C. R. Bonini-Domingos

Abstract Hibernation is a natural condition of animals that lives in the temperate zone, although some tropical lizards also experience hibernation annually, such as the lizard native from South America, Salvator merianae, or “tegu” lizard. Even though physiological and metabolic characteristic associated with hibernation have been extensively studied, possible alterations in the red blood cells (RBC) integrity during this period remains unclear. Dehydration and fasting are natural consequences of hibernating for several months and it could be related to some cellular modifications. In this study, we investigated if the osmotic tolerance of RBCs of tegu lizard under hibernation is different from the cells obtained from animals while normal activity. Additionally, we indirectly investigated if the RBCs membrane of hibernating tegus could be associated with oxidation by quantifying oxidized biomolecules and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Our findings suggest that RBCs are more fragile during the hibernation period, although we did not find evidence of an oxidative stress scenario associated with the accentuated fragility. Even though we did not exclude the possibility of oxidative damage during hibernation, we suggested that an increased RBCs volume as a consequence of hypoosmotic blood during hibernation could also affect RBCs integrity as noted.

Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 34-44
Z. Mohd Zin ◽  
N.H. Yahaya ◽  
N. Bashah ◽  
K. Ibrahim ◽  
N.D. Rusli ◽  

Water lily (Nymphaea antares) is one of the most valuable aquatic ornamental plants which has bright potential in the floriculture industry. It may be useful as an urban ecosystem and as a source of medicinal compounds. Due to its potential to become a new value-added product in the food industry, water lily (N. antares) was investigated in this study. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the nutritional content and antioxidant activity in water lily leaves and petioles with different pH extraction buffers. Water lily extract was obtained using three different pH extraction buffers, Tris buffer at pH 6.8, pH 7.1 and pH 7.8. The heat capacity of the extract was analysed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and different functional groups were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Thermal denaturation of the leaves sample was detected at 81.84°C. The antioxidant enzymes activities including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in the leaves and petioles of water lily. In leaves, PPO activity was found to be higher in samples with pH 7.1 of the extraction buffer while there were no significant differences for activities of CAT, POX and SOD in all samples. In petioles, PPO and POX activity were found to be higher in samples with pH 7.8 and 7.1 of extraction buffer, respectively. Thus, the study found that a pH range of 7 to 9 extraction buffers did not greatly affect most of the analysis performed.

Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Ji Yeon Lee ◽  
Hye Min Park ◽  
Chang-Ho Kang

In this study, the antioxidant mechanism of Astragalus membranaceus fermented by Lactiplantibacillusplantarum MG5276 (MG5276F-AM) was evaluated in HepG2 cells and in an animal model. HPLC analysis was performed to confirm the bioconversion of the bioactive compounds in A. membranaceus by fermentation. Calycosin and formononetin, which were not detected before fermentation (NF-AM), were detected after fermentation (MG5276F-AM), and its glycoside was not observed in MG5276F-AM. In HepG2 cells, MG5276F-AM alleviated H2O2-induced oxidative stress by mediating lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels, and upregulated antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In the tBHP-injected mouse model, administration of MG5276F-AM reduced hepatic aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and lipid peroxidation. MG5276F-AM also modulated antioxidant enzymes as well as HepG2 cells. Thus, fermentation of A. membranaceus with L. plantarum MG5276 elevated the isoflavonoid aglycone by hydrolysis of its glycosides, and this bioconversion enhanced antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Zezhong Feng ◽  
Lingjuan Wu ◽  
Zhenjie Sun ◽  
Jiali Yang ◽  
Guiyan Liu ◽  

Neopyropia yezoensis is an economically important marine crop that can survive dehydrating conditions when nets are lifted from seawater. During this process, production of oxygen radicals and the resulting up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes mediated by the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway played an important role. However, there were no reports about the significance regarding the protection of seaweed throughout the entire production season. Especially, in new aquatic farms in Shandong Province that were formed when traditional N. yezoensis cultivation moved north. Here, we determined the levels of ABA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), soluble protein, chlorophyll, and cell wall polysaccharides in samples collected at different harvest periods from Jimo aquatic farm, Shandong Province. The activities and expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and antioxidant enzymes in the corresponding samples were also determined. Combined with the monitoring data of sea surface temperature and solar light intensity, we proposed that the cultivation of N. yezoensis in Shandong Province was not affected by high-temperature stress. However, photoinhibition in N. yezoensis usually occurs at noon, especially in March. Both the activities and the expression of NOX and antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated continuously. It is reasonable to speculate that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NOX induced the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes through the ABA signaling pathway. Although antioxidant enzymes play a pivotal role during the cultivation of N. yezoensis, the production of ROS also caused a shift in gene expression, accumulation of secondary metabolites, and even decreased the chlorophyll pool size, which eventually led to a decrease in algae assimilation. Accordingly, we suggest that the dehydration of N. yezoensis nets should be adopted when necessary and the extent of dehydration should be paid special consideration to avoid an excessive cellular response caused by ROS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 56 (1) ◽  
pp. 175-183
Kondeti Ramudu Shanmugam ◽  
Bhasha Shanmugam ◽  
Mavulapati Siva ◽  
Sahukari Ravi ◽  
Kesireddy Sathyavelu Reddy

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Elena K. Gaidamakova ◽  
Ajay Sharma ◽  
Vera Y. Matrosova ◽  
Olga Grichenko ◽  
Robert P. Volpe ◽  

The current theory of cellular defense against oxidative damage identifies antioxidant enzymes as primary defenders against ROS, with MnSOD being the preeminent superoxide (O 2 •− ) scavenger. However, MnSOD is shown to be dispensable both for radiation resistance and longevity in model organisms, the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans .

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 176
Tatjana G. Shibaeva ◽  
Elena G. Sherudilo ◽  
Alexandra A. Rubaeva ◽  
Alexander F. Titov

The effect of continuous lighting (CL, 24 h) and light spectrum on growth and nutritional quality of arugula (Eruca sativa), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic), mizuna (Brassica rapa. var. nipposinica), and radish (Raphanus sativus var. radicula) were investigated in growth chambers under light-emitting diode (LED) and fluorescent lighting. Microgreens were grown under four combinations of two photoperiods (16 h and 24 h) providing daily light integral (DLI) of 15.6 and 23.3 mol m−2 day−1, correspondingly) with two light spectra: LED lamps and fluorescent lamps (FLU). The results show that fresh and dry weights as well as leaf mass per area and robust index of harvested arugula, broccoli, mizuna, and radish seedlings were significantly higher under CL compared to 16 h photoperiod regardless of light quality. There were no visible signs of leaf photodamage. In all CL-treated plants higher chlorophyll a/b and carotenoid-to-chlorophyll ratios were observed in all plants except mizuna. CL treatment was beneficial for anthocyanin, flavonoid, and proline accumulation. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and guaiacol peroxidase) were also observed in CL-treated plants. In most cases, the effects were more pronounced under LED lighting. These results indicate that plants under mild oxidative stress induced by CL accumulated more non-enzymatic antioxidants and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. This added nutritional value to microgreens that are used as functional foods providing health benefits. We suggest that for arugula, broccoli, mizuna, and radish, an LED CL production strategy is possible and can have economic and nutritional benefits.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 97
Muhammad Mohsin ◽  
Ziping Zhang ◽  
Guangwen Yin

Coccidiosis is an important parasitic disease of poultry with great economic importance. Due to drug resistance issues, the study was conducted to investigate how probiotics (Lactobacillus plantarum or L. plantarum) affected oocysts per gram of feces (OPG), fecal scores, feed conversion ratio (FCR), immunomodulatory effect in terms of the cell-mediated and humoral immune response. Serum chemistry (ALT, AST, LDH, and creatinine) was measured in different treated chicken groups. mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD 1 and CAT), peptide transporter 1 (PepT 1), and tight junction proteins (ZO and CLDN 1) were also examined in chicken groups infected with Eimeria tenella (E. tenella). Chickens supplemented with L. plantarum 1 × 108 CFU (colony-forming unit) showed an improved cell-mediated and humoral immune response, compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Probiotics also enhanced the performance of antioxidant enzymes, PepT 1, and tight junction proteins, and improved serum chemistry (AST, ALT, and LDH), compared with control-infected, non-medicated chickens. However, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in CLDN 1 expression level and creatinine in all treated chicken groups. These findings demonstrated that probiotics supplementation in the feed can protect the birds against E. tenella infection.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 175
Gergana Mihailova ◽  
Ivanina Vasileva ◽  
Liliana Gigova ◽  
Emiliya Gesheva ◽  
Lyudmila Simova-Stoilova ◽  

In this study, the contribution of nonenzymatic (ascorbate, glutathione) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase) in the first hours of recovery of the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis from drought- and freezing-induced desiccation was assessed. The initial stage of recovery after desiccation is critical for plants, but less investigated. To better understand the alterations in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, their isoenzyme patterns were determined. Our results showed that ascorbate content remained high during the first 9 h of rehydration of desiccated plants and declined when the leaves′ water content significantly increased. The glutathione content remained high at the first hour of rehydration and then strongly decreased. The changes in ascorbate and glutathione content during recovery from drought- and freezing-induced desiccation showed great similarity. At the beginning of rehydration (1–5 h), the activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased or remained as in dry plants. During 7–24 h of rehydration, certain differences in the enzymatic responses between the two plant groups were registered. The maintenance of a high antioxidant activity and upregulation of individual enzyme isoforms indicated their essential role in protecting plants from oxidative damage during the onset of recovery.

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