forest canopy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 505 ◽  
pp. 119945
Jian Zhang ◽  
Zhaochen Zhang ◽  
James A. Lutz ◽  
Chengjin Chu ◽  
Jianbo Hu ◽  

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 124
Carlos Ivan Briones-Herrera ◽  
Daniel José Vega-Nieva ◽  
Jaime Briseño-Reyes ◽  
Norma Angélica Monjarás-Vega ◽  
Pablito Marcelo López-Serrano ◽  

Context and Background. Active fires have the potential to provide early estimates of fire perimeters, but there is a lack of information about the best active fire aggregation distances and how they can vary between fuel types, particularly in large areas of study under diverse climatic conditions. Objectives. The current study aimed at analyzing the effect of aggregation distances for mapping fire perimeters from active fires for contrasting fuel types and regions in Mexico. Materials and Methods. Detections of MODIS and VIIRS active fires from the period 2012–2018 were used to obtain perimeters of aggregated active fires (AGAF) at four aggregation distances (750, 1000, 1125, and 1500 m). AGAF perimeters were compared against MODIS MCD64A1 burned area for a total of 24 fuel types and regions covering all the forest area of Mexico. Results/findings. Optimum aggregation distances varied between fuel types and regions, with the longest aggregation distances observed for the most arid regions and fuel types dominated by shrubs and grasslands. Lowest aggregation distances were obtained in the regions and fuel types with the densest forest canopy and more humid climate. Purpose/Novelty. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to analyze the effect of fuel type on the optimum aggregation distance for mapping fire perimeters directly from aggregated active fires. The methodology presented here can be used operationally in Mexico and elsewhere, by accounting for fuel-specific aggregation distances, for improving rapid estimates of fire perimeters. These early fire perimeters could be potentially available in near-real time (at every satellite pass with a 12 h latency) in operational fire monitoring GIS systems to support rapid assessment of fire progression and fire suppression planning.

2022 ◽  
Francesco Chianucci ◽  
Carlotta Ferrara ◽  
Nicola Puletti

Digital Cover Photography (DCP) is an increasingly popular tool for estimating canopy cover and leaf area index (LAI). However, existing solutions to process canopy images are predominantly tailored for fisheye photography, whereas open-access tools for DCP are lacking. We developed an R package (coveR) to support the whole processing of DCP images in an automated, fast and reproducible way. The package functions, which are designed for step-by-step single-image analysis, can be performed sequentially in a pipeline and also allow simple implementation of batch-processing bunches of images. A case study is presented to demonstrate the reliability of canopy attributes derived from coveR in pure beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands with variable canopy density and structure. Estimates of gap fraction and effective LAI from DCP were validated against reference measurements obtained from terrestrial laser scanning. By providing a simple, transparent and flexible image processing procedure, coveR supported the use of DCP for routine measurements and monitoring of forest canopy attributes. This, combined with the implementability of DCP in many devices, including smartphones, micro-cameras, and remote trail cameras, can greatly expand the accessibility of the method also to non-experts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 364
Zhilong Xi ◽  
Huadong Xu ◽  
Yanqiu Xing ◽  
Weishu Gong ◽  
Guizhen Chen ◽  

Spaceborne LiDAR has been widely used to obtain forest canopy heights over large areas, but it is still a challenge to obtain spatio-continuous forest canopy heights with this technology. In order to make up for this deficiency and take advantage of the complementary for multi-source remote sensing data in forest canopy height mapping, a new method to estimate forest canopy height was proposed by synergizing the spaceborne LiDAR (ICESat-2) data, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, multi-spectral images, and topographic data considering forest types. In this study, National Geographical Condition Monitoring (NGCM) data was used to extract the distributions of coniferous forest (CF), broadleaf forest (BF), and mixed forest (MF) in Hua’ nan forest area in Heilongjiang Province, China. Accordingly, the forest canopy height estimation models for whole forest (all forests together without distinguishing types, WF), CF, BF, and MF were established, respectively, by Radom Forest (RF) and Gradient Boosting Decision Tree (GBDT). The accuracy for established models and the forest canopy height obtained based on estimation models were validated consequently. The results showed that the forest canopy height estimation models considering forest types had better performance than the model grouping all types of forest together. Compared with GBDT, RF with optimal variables had better performance in forest canopy height estimation with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (R) and the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) values for CF, BF, and MF of 0.72, 0.59, 0.62, and 3.15, 3.37, 3.26 m, respectively. It has been validated that a synergy of ICESat-2 with other remote sensing data can make a crucial contribution to spatio-continuous forest canopy height mapping, especially for areas covered by different types of forest.

2022 ◽  
D. Ferraretto ◽  
R. Nair ◽  
N. W. Shah ◽  
D. Reay ◽  
M. Mencuccini ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Tianyu Yu ◽  
Wenjian Ni ◽  
Zhiyu Zhang ◽  
Qinhuo Liu ◽  
Guoqing Sun

Canopy cover is an important parameter affecting forest succession, carbon fluxes, and wildlife habitats. Several global maps with different spatial resolutions have been produced based on satellite images, but facing the deficiency of reliable references for accuracy assessments. The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with consumer-grade camera enables the acquisition of high-resolution images at low cost, which provides the research community a promising tool to collect reference data. However, it is still a challenge to distinguish tree crowns and understory green vegetation based on the UAV-based true color images (RGB) due to the limited spectral information. In addition, the canopy height model (CHM) derived from photogrammetric point clouds has also been used to identify tree crowns but limited by the unavailability of understory terrain elevations. This study proposed a simple method to distinguish tree crowns and understories based on UAV visible images, which was referred to as BAMOS for convenience. The central idea of the BAMOS was the synergy of spectral information from digital orthophoto map (DOM) and structural information from digital surface model (DSM). Samples of canopy covers were produced by applying the BAMOS method on the UAV images collected at 77 sites with a size of about 1.0 km2 across Daxing’anling forested area in northeast of China. Results showed that canopy cover extracted by the BAMOS method was highly correlated to visually interpreted ones with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.96 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 5.7%. Then, the UAV-based canopy covers served as references for assessment of satellite-based maps, including MOD44B Version 6 Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF), maps developed by the Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF) and by the Global Land Analysis and Discovery laboratory (GLAD). Results showed that both GLAD and GLCF canopy covers could capture the dominant spatial patterns, but GLAD canopy cover tended to miss scattered trees in highly heterogeneous areas, and GLCF failed to capture non-tree areas. Most important of all, obvious underestimations with RMSE about 20% were easily observed in all satellite-based maps, although the temporal inconsistency with references might have some contributions.

2022 ◽  
Petri Varvia ◽  
Lauri Korhonen ◽  
André Bruguière ◽  
Janne Toivonen ◽  
Petteri Packalen ◽  

Spaceborne lidar sensors have potential to improve the accuracy of forest above-ground biomass (AGB) estimates by providing direct measurements of 3D structure of forests over large spatial scales. The ICESat-2 (Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite 2), launched in 2018, provides a good coverage of the boreal forest zone and has been previously shown to provide good estimates of forest canopy height and AGB. However, spaceborne lidar data are affected by various conditions, such as presence of snow, solar noise, and in the case of ICESat-2, the power difference between the so-called strong and weak beams. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of these conditions on the performance of AGB modeling using ICESat-2 photon data in a boreal forest area. The framework of the study is multiphase modeling, where AGB field data and wall-to-wall airborne laser scanning (ALS) data are used to produce proxy ALS plots on ICESat-2 track positions. Models between the ALS-predicted AGB and the ICESat-2 photon data are then formulated and evaluated by subsets, such as only strong beam data captured in snowy conditions.Our results indicate that, if possible, strong beam night data from snowless conditions should be used in AGB estimation, because our models showed clearly smallest RMSE (27.0%) for this data subset. If more data are needed, we recommend using only strong beam data and constructing separate models for the different data subsets. In the order of increasing RMSE\%, the next best options were snow/night/strong (30.5%), snow/day/strong (33.6%), and snowless/day/strong (34.2%). Weak beam data from snowy night conditions could also be used if necessary (31.1%).

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Oksana L. Rozanova ◽  
Sergey M. Tsurikov ◽  
Marina G. Krivosheina ◽  
Andrei V. Tanasevitch ◽  
Dmitry N. Fedorenko ◽  

AbstractForest canopy is densely populated by phyto-, sapro-, and microbiphages, as well as predators and parasitoids. Eventually, many of crown inhabitants fall down, forming so-called ‘arthropod rain’. Although arthropod rain can be an important food source for litter-dwelling predators and saprophages, its origin and composition remains unexplored. We measured stable isotope composition of the arthropod rain in a temperate mixed forest throughout the growing season. Invertebrates forming arthropod rain were on average depleted in 13C and 15N by 1.6‰ and 2.7‰, respectively, compared to the soil-dwelling animals. This difference can be used to detect the contribution of the arthropod rain to detrital food webs. Low average δ13C and δ15N values of the arthropod rain were primarily driven by the presence of wingless microhytophages, represented mainly by Collembola and Psocoptera, and macrophytophages, mainly aphids, caterpillars, and heteropterans. Winged arthropods were enriched in heavy isotopes relative to wingless specimens, being similar in the isotopic composition to soil-dwelling invertebrates. Moreover, there was no consistent difference in δ13C and δ15N values between saprophages and predators among winged insects, suggesting that winged insects in the arthropod rain represented a random assemblage of specimens originating in different biotopes, and are tightly linked to soil food webs.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
L. N. Sharma ◽  
B. Adhikari ◽  
M. F. Watson ◽  
B. B. Shrestha ◽  
E. Paudel ◽  

Abstract Invasive alien species are a major threat to global biodiversity due to the tremendous ecological and economic damage they cause in forestry, agriculture, wetlands, and pastoral resources. Understanding the spatial pattern of invasive alien species and disentangling the biophysical drivers of invasion at the forest stand level is essential for managing forest ecosystems and the wider landscape. However, forest-level and species-specific information on Invasive Alien Plant Species (IAPS) abundance and their spatial extent are largely lacking. In this context, we analysed the cover of one of the world’s worst invasive plants, Chromolaena odorata, in Sal (Shorea robusta) forest in central Nepal. Vegetation was sampled in four community forests using 0.01 ha square quadrats, covering the forest edge to the interior. C. odorata cover, floral richness, tree density, forest canopy cover, shrub cover, tree basal area, and disturbances were measured in each plot. We also explored forest and IAPS management practices in community forests. C. odorata cover was negatively correlated with forest canopy cover, distance to the road, angle of slope, and shrub cover. Tree canopy cover had the largest effect on C. odorata cover. No pattern of C. odorata cover was seen along native species richness gradients. In conclusion, forest canopy cover is the overriding biotic covariate suppressing C. odorata cover in Sal forests.

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