Cell Viability
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Gail Lewis Phillips ◽  
Jun Guo ◽  
James R. Kiefer ◽  
William Proctor ◽  
Daniela Bumbaca Yadav ◽  

Abstract Purpose Assessment of non-clinical safety signals relies on understanding species selectivity of antibodies. This is particularly important with antibody–drug conjugates, where it is key to determine target-dependent versus target-independent toxicity. Although it appears to be widely accepted that trastuzumab does not bind mouse or rat HER2/ErbB2/neu, numerous investigators continue to use mouse models to investigate safety signals of trastuzumab and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1). We, therefore, conducted a broad array of both binding and biologic studies to demonstrate selectivity of trastuzumab for human HER2 versus mouse/rat neu. Methods Binding of anti-neu and anti-HER2 antibodies was assessed by ELISA, FACS, IHC, Scatchard, and immunoblot methods in human, rat, and mouse cell lines. In human hepatocytes, T-DM1 uptake and catabolism were measured by LC-MS/MS; cell viability changes were determined using CellTiter-Glo. Results Our data demonstrate, using different binding methods, lack of trastuzumab binding to rat or mouse neu. Structural studies show important amino acid differences in the trastuzumab-HER2 binding interface between mouse/rat and human HER2 ECD. Substitution of these rodent amino acid residues into human HER2 abolish binding of trastuzumab. Cell viability changes, uptake, and catabolism of T-DM1 versus a DM1 non-targeted control ADC were comparable, indicating target-independent effects of the DM1-containing ADCs. Moreover, trastuzumab binding to human or mouse hepatocytes was not detected. Conclusions These data, in total, demonstrate that trastuzumab, and by extension T-DM1, do not bind rat or mouse neu, underscoring the importance of species selection for safety studies investigating trastuzumab or trastuzumab-based therapeutics.

Mahara Hosseinabadi ◽  
Zohreh Abdolmaleki ◽  
Seyed Hamed Shirazi Beheshtiha

AbstractAn incapability to improve lost cardiac muscle caused by acute ischemic injury remains the most important deficiency of current treatments to prevent heart failure. We investigated whether cardiomyocytes culturing on cardiac aorta-derived extracellular matrix scaffold has advantageous effects on cardiomyocytes survival and angiogenesis biomarkers’ expression. Ten male NMRI mice were randomly divided into two groups: (1) control (healthy mice) and (2) myocardial infarction (MI)-induced model group (Isoproterenol/subcutaneously injection/single dose of 85 mg/kg). Two days after isoproterenol injection, all animals were sacrificed to isolate cardiomyocytes from myocardium tissues. The fresh thoracic aorta was obtained from male NMRI mice and decellularized using 4% sodium deoxycholate and 2000 kU DNase-I treatments. Control and MI-derived cardiomyocytes were seeded on decellularized cardiac aorta (DCA) considered three-dimensional (3D) cultures. To compare, the isolated cardiomyocytes from control and MI groups were also cultured as a two-dimensional (2D) culture system for 14 days. The cell viability was examined by MTT assay. The expression levels of Hif-1α and VEGF genes and VEGFR1 protein were tested by real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Moreover, the amount of VEGF protein was evaluated in the conditional media of the 2D and 3D systems. The oxidative stress was assessed via MDA assay. Hif-1α and VEGF genes were downregulated in MI groups compared to controls. However, the resulting data showed that decellularized cardiac aorta matrices positively affect the expression of Hif-1α and VEGF genes. The expression level of VEGFR1 protein was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) upregulated in both MI and healthy cell groups cultured on decellularized cardiac aorta matrices as a 3D system compared to the MI cell group cultured in the 2D systems. Furthermore, MDA concentration significantly decreased in 3D-cultured cells (MI and healthy cell groups) rather than the 2D-cultured MI group (p ≤ 0.015). The findings suggest that cardiac aorta-derived extracellular scaffold by preserving VEGF, improving the cell viability, and stimulating angiogenesis via upregulating Hif-1α, VEGF, and VEGFR1 in cardiomyocytes could be considered as a potential approach along with another therapeutic method to reduce the complications of myocardial infarction and control the progressive pathological conditions related to MI.

Biomedicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 41 (3) ◽  
pp. 587-591
Akshaya Pai ◽  
Chandrakala Shenoy

Introduction and Aim: Plants have become the current focus of research in treating the various diseases and ailments. Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch belongs to the familySalicaceae. Itis a small deciduous fruit tree having immense nutritional and medicinal significance. Different parts of the plant are pharmaceutically used forcuring various ailments. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective activity of Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch leaves and fruit methanolic extract on Paracetamol induced HepG2 cell line.   Methods: The cytotoxic and hepatoprotective properties were evaluated by measuring cell viability; activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) levels).   Results:The increased cell viability of 140.43± 4.07% and 133.93±3.20%was observed in HepG2 cells treated with methanolic extract of F. jangomas leaf and fruit extract respectively at 10µg/ml concentration and then decreased along with the rise of F. jangomas leaf and fruit extract concentrations. The level of LDH, ALT, AST and MDA decreased after F. jangomas leaf and fruit treatment compared to negative control.   Conclusion: This study suggests that the methanolic Extract of F. jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch leaves(FJL)and fruit (FJF) shows hepatoprotective activity in Paracetamol induced HepG2 cell line by the decrease in AST and ALT activities and LDH and MDA level. Hence, it could be considered as a therapeutic agent in curing liver-related diseases.  

Yi Yu ◽  
Ziyan Wu ◽  
Zhong Zhou ◽  
Weiguo Zhang

MicroRNA (miR)-21 has been found to be overexpressed in osteosarcoma (OS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of miR-21-5p on the Warburg effect and stemness maintenance in OS cells and its potential molecular mechanism. Herein, miR-21-5p was overexpressed or inhibited in MG-63 cells via transfection with mimics or inhibitors. The effect of miR-21-5p on cell viability, apoptosis, Warburg effect and stemness maintenance were explored in OS cells. The results demonstrated that miR-21-5p inhibition suppressed MG-63 cell viability and enhanced their apoptosis. Additionally, miR-21-5p inhibition attenuated the stemness maintenance of MG-63 cells, as demonstrated by the reduced proportion of CD133-positive MG-63 cells, the decrease in tumorsphere formation capacity, and the downregulation of Sox2, Oct4, and Nanog proteins. Moreover, miR-21-5p inhibition suppressed the Warburg effect in MG-63 cells, as indicated by the decrease in glucose uptake, lactic acid production, and ATP level and the downregulation of proteins involved in the Warburg effect (GLUT1, LDHA, HK2, and PKM2). Furthermore, the results suggested that the effect of miR-21-5p suppression on stemness and the Warburg effect may be associated with the decreased activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in OS cells. Our findings suggest a novel potential biomarker for OS therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11503
Lukas B. Moser ◽  
Christoph Bauer ◽  
Vivek Jeyakumar ◽  
Eugenia-Paulina Niculescu-Morzsa ◽  
Stefan Nehrer

The current study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of co-administrating local anesthetics (LA) with glucocorticoids (GC) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in vitro. Human articular cartilage was obtained from five patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Chondrocytes were isolated, expanded, and seeded in 24-well plates for experimental testing. LA (lidocaine, bupivacaine, ropivacaine) were administered separately and co-administered with the following substances: GC, HA, and GC/HA. Viability was confirmed by microscopic images, flow cytometry, metabolic activity, and live/dead assay. The addition of HA and GC/HA resulted in enhanced attachment and branched appearance of the chondrocytes compared to LA and LA/GC. Metabolic activity was better in all LA co-administered with HA and GC/HA than with GC and only LA. Flow cytometry revealed the lowest cell viability in lidocaine and the highest cell viability in ropivacaine. This finding was also confirmed by live/dead assay. In conclusion, HA supports the effect of GC and reduces chondrotoxic effects of LA in vitro. Thereby, the co-administration of HA to LA and GC offers an alternative less chondrotoxic approach for treating patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (21) ◽  
pp. 6422
Qi Xu ◽  
Ziyu Chen ◽  
Borong Zhu ◽  
Yiming Li ◽  
Manju B. Reddy ◽  

Cinnamon procyanidin oligomers (CPOs) are water-soluble components extracted from cinnamon. This study aims to explore the neuroprotection of B-type CPO (CPO-B) against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-mediated cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanisms underlying its protection. The results demonstrated that CPO-B showed protection by increasing cell viability, attenuating an intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, downregulating cleaved caspase-3 expression, and upregulating the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Moreover, CPO-B completely blocked the dephosphorylation of extracellular, signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) caused by MPP+. Treatment with an Erk1/2 inhibitor, SCH772984, significantly abolished the neuroprotection of CPO-B against MPP+. Taken together, we demonstrate that CPO-B from cinnamon bark provided protection against MPP+ in cultured SH-SY5Y cells, and the potential mechanisms may be attributed to its ability to modulate the dysregulation between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins through the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that the addition of cinnamon to food or supplements might benefit patients with PD.

Haneen Abusharkh ◽  
Terreill Robertson ◽  
Juana Mendenhall ◽  
Bulent Gozen ◽  
Edwin Tingstad ◽  

The present study is focused on designing an easy-to-use novel perfusion system for articular cartilage (AC) tissue engineering and using it to elucidate the mechanism by which interstitial shear upregulates matrix synthesis by articular chondrocytes (AChs). Porous chitosan-agarose (CHAG) scaffolds were synthesized, freeze-dried, and compared to bulk agarose (AG) scaffolds. Both scaffold types were seeded with osteoarthritic human AChs and cultured in a novel perfusion system for one week with a shear-inducing medium flow velocity of 0.33 mm/s corresponding to an average surficial shear of 0.4 mPa and a CHAG interstitial shear of 40 mPa. While there were no statistical differences in cell viability for perfusion vs. static cultures for either scaffold type, CHAG scaffold cultures exhibited 3.3-fold higher (p<0.005) cell viability compared to AG scaffold cultures. Effects of combined superficial and interstitial perfusion for CHAG showed 150- and 45-fold (p<0.0001) increases in total collagen (COL) and 13- and 2.2-fold (p<0.001) increases in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) over AG’s scaffold non-perfusion and perfusion cultures, respectively, and a 1.5-fold and 3.6-fold (p<0.005) increase over non-perfusion CHAG cultures. Contrasting CHAG perfusion and static cultures, chondrogenic gene comparisons showed a 3.5-fold increase in collagen type II/type I (COL2A1/COL1A1) mRNA ratio (p<0.05), and a 1.3-fold increase in aggrecan mRNA. Observed effects are suggested to be the result of inhibiting the inflammatory NF-κB signal transduction pathway as confirmed by a further study that indicated a reduction by 3.2-fold (p<0.05) upon exposure to perfusion. Our results demonstrate that the presence of pores plays a critical role in improving cell viability and that interstitial flow caused by medium perfusion through the porous scaffolds enhances the expression of chondrogenic genes and ECM components through the downregulation of NF-κB1.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11409
Sung Ho Lim ◽  
Ho Seon Lee ◽  
Hyo-Kyung Han ◽  
Chang-Ik Choi

Obesity is a lipid metabolism disorder caused by genetic, medicinal, nutritional, and other environmental factors. It is characterized by a complex condition of excess lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Adipogenesis is a differentiation process that converts preadipocytes into mature adipocytes and contributes to excessive fat deposition. Saikosaponin A (SSA) and saikosaponin D (SSD) are triterpenoid saponins separated from the root of the Bupleurum chinensis, which has long been used to treat inflammation, fever, and liver diseases. However, the effects of these constituents on lipid accumulation and obesity are poorly understood. We investigated the anti-obesity effects of SSA and SSD in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The MTT assay was performed to measure cell viability, and Oil Red O staining was conducted to determine lipid accumulation. Various adipogenic transcription factors were evaluated at the protein and mRNA levels by Western blot assay and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Here, we showed that SSA and SSD significantly inhibited lipid accumulation without affecting cell viability within the range of the tested concentrations (0.938–15 µM). SSA and SSD also dose-dependently suppressed the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and adiponectin. Furthermore, the decrease of these transcriptional factors resulted in the repressed expression of several lipogenic genes including fatty acid binding protein (FABP4), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In addition, SSA and SSD enhanced the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38, but not c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggest that SSA and SSD inhibit adipogenesis through the AMPK or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in the early stages of adipocyte differentiation. This is the first study on the anti-adipogenic effects of SSA and SSD, and further research in animals and humans is necessary to confirm the potential of saikosaponins as therapeutic agents for obesity.

Luke W. Thomas ◽  
Margaret Ashcroft

Mitochondria are key organelles in eukaryotic evolution that perform crucial roles as metabolic and cellular signaling hubs. Mitochondrial function and dysfunction are associated with a range of diseases, including cancer. Mitochondria support cancer cell proliferation through biosynthetic reactions and their role in signaling, and can also promote tumorigenesis via processes such as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The advent of (nuclear) genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 deletion screens has provided gene-level resolution of the requirement of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes (NEMGs) for cancer cell viability (essentiality). More recently, it has become apparent that the essentiality of NEMGs is highly dependent on the cancer cell context. In particular, key tumor microenvironmental factors such as hypoxia, and changes in nutrient (e.g., glucose) availability, significantly influence the essentiality of NEMGs. In this mini-review we will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the contribution of NEMGs to cancer from CRISPR-Cas9 deletion screens, and discuss emerging concepts surrounding the context-dependent nature of mitochondrial gene essentiality.

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