Plasma Membrane
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2022 ◽  
Dylan Scott Eiger ◽  
Noelia Boldizsar ◽  
Christopher Cole Honeycutt ◽  
Julia Gardner ◽  
Stephen Kirchner ◽  

Some G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands act as biased agonists which preferentially activate specific signaling transducers over others. Although GPCRs are primarily found at the plasma membrane, GPCRs can traffic to and signal from many subcellular compartments. Here, we determine that differential subcellular signaling contributes to the biased signaling generated by three endogenous ligands of the chemokine GPCR CXCR3. The signaling profile of CXCR3 changed as it trafficked from the plasma membrane to endosomes in a ligand-specific manner. Endosomal signaling was critical for biased activation of G proteins, β-arrestins, and ERK1/2. In CD8+ T cells, the chemokines promoted unique transcriptional responses predicted to regulate inflammatory pathways. In a mouse model of contact hypersensitivity, β-arrestin-biased CXCR3-mediated inflammation was dependent on receptor internalization. Our work demonstrates that differential subcellular signaling is critical to the overall biased response observed at CXCR3, which has important implications for drugs targeting chemokine receptors and other GPCRs.

2022 ◽  
Alfredo Figueroa-Melendez ◽  
Leonora Martinez-Nunez ◽  
Adriana Maria Rico-Ramirez ◽  
Juan Manuel Martinez-Andrade ◽  
Mary Munson ◽  

The exocyst is a conserved multimeric complex that participates in the final steps of the secretion of vesicles. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, the exocyst is crucial for polar growth, morphology, and the organization of the Spitzenkorper (Spk), the apical body where secretory vesicles accumulate before being delivered to the plasma membrane. In the highly polarized cells of N. crassa, the exocyst subunits SEC-3, SEC-5, SEC-6, SEC-8, and SEC-15 were previously found localized at the plasma membrane of the apices of the cells, while EXO-70 and EXO-84 occupied the frontal outer layer of the Spk, occupied by vesicles. The localization of SEC-10 had remained so far elusive. In this work, SEC-10 was tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) either at its N- or C-terminus and found localized at the plasma membrane of growing hyphal tips, similar to what was previously observed for some exocyst subunits. While expression of an N-terminally tagged version of SEC-10 at its native locus was fully viable, expression of a C-terminally tagged version at its native locus resulted in severe hyphal growth and polarity defects. Additionally, a sec-10 knockout mutant in a heterokaryotic state (with genetically different nuclei) was viable but showed a strongly aberrant phenotype, confirming that this subunit is essential to maintain hyphal morphogenesis. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the lack of a Spk in the SEC-10-GFP strain, suggesting a critical role of the exocyst in the vesicular organization at the Spk. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed fewer peptides of exocyst subunits interacting with SEC-10-GFP than with GFP-SEC-10, suggesting an essential role of the C-terminus of SEC-10 in exocyst assembly and/or stability. Altogether, our data suggest that an unobstructed C-terminus of SEC-10 is indispensable for the exocyst complex function and that a GFP tag could be blocking important subunit-subunit interactions.

2022 ◽  
Hannah E Krawczyk ◽  
Siqi Sun ◽  
Nathan Doner ◽  
Qiqi Yan ◽  
Magdiel Sheng Satha Lim ◽  

Membrane contact sites (MCS) are inter-organellar connections that allow for the direct exchange of molecules, such as lipids or Ca2+ between organelles, but can also serve to tether organelles at specific locations within cells. Here we identified and characterised three proteins that form a lipid droplet (LD)-plasma membrane (PM) tethering complex in plant cells, namely LD-localised SEED LD PROTEIN (SLDP) 1 and 2 and PM-localised LD-PLASMA MEMBRANE ADAPTOR (LIPA). Using proteomics and different protein-protein interaction assays, we show that both SLDPs associate with LIPA. Disruption of either SLDP1 and 2 expression, or that of LIPA, leads to an aberrant clustering of LDs in Arabidopsis seedlings. Ectopic co-expression of one of the SLDPs with LIPA on the other hand is sufficient to reconstitute LD-PM tethering in Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes, a cell type characterised by dynamically moving LDs in the cytosolic streaming. Further, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed both SLDP2.1 and LIPA to be enriched at LD-PM contact sites in seedlings. These and other results suggest that SLDP and LIPA interact to form a tethering complex that anchors a subset of LDs to the PM during post-germinative seedling growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

2022 ◽  
Miguel Silva ◽  
Carla Calçada ◽  
Nuno Osório ◽  
Vitória Baptista ◽  
Vandana Thathy ◽  

Abstract Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an important role in mediating solute or drug transport across cellular membranes. Although this class of transporters has been well characterized in diverse organisms little is known about the physiological roles in Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite species. We studied the Plasmodium falciparum Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein 1 (PfMRP1; PF3D7_0112200), an ABC transporter localized to the parasite plasma membrane, generating genetic disrupted parasites. We demonstrate that parasites with disrupted pfmrp1 are resistant to folate analogs, methotrexate and aminopterin, with antimalarial activity. This phenotype occurs due to reduction in compound accumulation in the parasite cytoplasm. Phylogenetic analysis supports pfmrp1 being distantly related to ABC transporters in other eukaryotes, suggesting an unusual function. We propose that PfMRP1 can act as a solute importer, a function not previously observed in this organism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 850
Cornelis van Breemen ◽  
Nicola Fameli ◽  
Klaus Groschner

Nano-junctions between the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic surfaces of the plasma membrane and other organelles shape the spatiotemporal features of biological Ca2+ signals. Herein, we propose that 2D Ca2+ exchange diffusion on the negatively charged phospholipid surface lining nano-junctions participates in guiding Ca2+ from its source (channel or carrier) to its target (transport protein or enzyme). Evidence provided by in vitro Ca2+ flux experiments using an artificial phospholipid membrane is presented in support of the above proposed concept, and results from stochastic simulations of Ca2+ trajectories within nano-junctions are discussed in order to substantiate its possible requirements. Finally, we analyze recent literature on Ca2+ lipid interactions, which suggests that 2D interfacial Ca2+ diffusion may represent an important mechanism of signal transduction in biological systems characterized by high phospholipid surface to aqueous volume ratios.

2022 ◽  
Megha Bansal ◽  
Kapil Sirohi ◽  
Shivranjani C Moharir ◽  
Ghanshyam Swarup

Autophagy is a conserved quality control mechanism that removes damaged proteins, organelles and invading bacteria through lysosome-mediated degradation. During autophagy several organelles including endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plasma membrane and endosomes contribute membrane for autophagosome formation. However, the mechanisms and proteins involved in membrane delivery to autophagosomes are not clear. Optineurin (OPTN), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein, is involved in promoting maturation of phagophores into autophagosomes; it is also involved in regulating endocytic trafficking and recycling of transferrin receptor (TFRC). Here, we have examined the role of optineurin in the delivery of membrane from TFRC-positive endosomes to autophagosomes. Only a small fraction of autophagosomes was positive for TFRC, indicating that TFRC-positive endosomes could contribute membrane to a subset of autophagosomes. The percentage of TFRC-positive autophagosomes was reduced in Optineurin knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (Optn-/-MEFs) in comparison with normal MEFs. Upon over-expression of optineurin, the percentage of TFRC-positive autophagosomes was increased in Optn-/- MEFs. Unlike wild-type optineurin, a disease-associated mutant, E478G, defective in ubiquitin binding, was not able to enhance formation of TFRC-positive autophagosomes in Optn-/- MEFs. TFRC degradation mediated by autophagy was decreased in optineurin deficient cells. Our results suggest that optineurin mediates delivery of TFRC and perhaps associated membrane from TFRC-positive endosomes to autophagosomes, and this may contribute to autophagosome formation.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Cátia Santos-Pereira ◽  
Lígia R. Rodrigues ◽  
Manuela Côrte-Real

Lactoferrin (Lf) is a milk-derived protein with well-recognized potential as a therapeutic agent against a wide variety of cancers. This natural protein exhibits health-promoting effects and has several interesting features, including its selectivity towards cancer cells, good tolerability in humans, worldwide availability, and holding a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. To prompt the rational clinical application of this promising anticancer compound, previous works aimed to unveil the molecular mechanisms underlying its selective anticancer activity, where plasmalemmal V-ATPase was identified as an Lf target in cancer cells. V-ATPase is a proton pump critical for cellular homeostasis that migrates to the plasma membrane of highly metastatic cancer cells contributing to the acidity of the tumor microenvironment. Cancer cells were found to be susceptible to Lf only when this proton pump is present at the plasma membrane. Plasmalemmal V-ATPase can thus be an excellent biomarker for driving treatment decisions and forecasting clinical outcomes of Lf-based anticancer strategies. Future research endeavors should thus seek to validate this biomarker by thorough preclinical and clinical studies, as well as to develop effective methods for its detection under clinical settings.

2022 ◽  
Jessica L. Cote ◽  
Paul B. Vander ◽  
Michael Ellis ◽  
Joel M. Cline ◽  
Nadezhda Svezhova ◽  

The adapter protein SH2B1 is recruited to neurotrophin receptors including TrkB, receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Herein, we demonstrate that the four alternatively spliced isoforms of SH2B1 are important determinants of neuronal architecture and neurotrophin-induced gene expression. Primary hippocampal neurons from Sh2b1−/- (KO) mice exhibit decreased neurite complexity and length and BDNF-induced expression of synapse-related immediate early genes Egr1 and Arc. Reintroduction of each SH2B1 isoform into KO neurons increases neurite complexity; the brain-specific δ isoform also increases total neurite length. Human obesity-associated variants, when expressed in SH2B1δ, alter neurite complexity, suggesting that a decrease or increase in neurite branching may have deleterious effects that contribute to the severe childhood obesity and neurobehavioral abnormalities associated with these variants. Surprisingly, in contrast to SH2B1α, β, and γ, which localize primarily in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane, SH2B1δ localizes primarily in nucleoli. Some SH2B1δ is also present in the plasma membrane and nucleus. Nucleolar localization, driven by two highly basic regions unique to SH2B1δ, is required for SH2B1δ to maximally increase neurite complexity and BDNF-induced expression of Egr1, Arc, and FosL1.

Carlo Giovanni Quintanilla ◽  
Wan-Ru Lee ◽  
Jen Liou

Homeostatic regulation of plasma membrane (PM) phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) in receptor-stimulated cells is mediated by the lipid transfer protein Nir2. Nir2 is dynamically recruited to endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane (ER-PM) junctions to facilitate replenishment of PM PIP2 hydrolyzed during receptor-mediated signaling. However, our knowledge regarding the activation and sustainment of Nir2-mediated replenishment of PM PIP2 is limited. Here, we describe the functions of Nir1 as a positive regulator of Nir2 and PIP2 homeostasis. In contrast to the family proteins Nir2 and Nir3, Nir1 constitutively localizes at ER-PM junctions. Nir1 potentiates Nir2 targeting to ER-PM junctions during receptor-mediated signaling and is required for efficient PM PIP2 replenishment. Live-cell imaging and biochemical analysis reveal that Nir1 interacts with Nir2 via a region between the FFAT motif and the DDHD domain. Combined, results from this study identify Nir1 as an ER-PM junction localized protein that promotes Nir2 recruitment for PIP2 homeostasis.

Takafumi Matsumura ◽  
Taichi Noda ◽  
Yuhkoh Satouh ◽  
Akane Morohoshi ◽  
Shunsuke Yuri ◽  

Fertilization occurs as the culmination of multi-step complex processes. First, mammalian spermatozoa undergo the acrosome reaction to become fusion-competent. Then, the acrosome-reacted spermatozoa penetrate the zona pellucida and adhere to and finally fuse with the egg plasma membrane. IZUMO1 is the first sperm protein proven to be essential for sperm-egg fusion in mammals, as Izumo1 knockout mouse spermatozoa adhere to but fail to fuse with the oolemma. However, the IZUMO1 function in other species remains largely unknown. Here, we generated Izumo1 knockout rats by CRISPR/Cas9 and found the male rats were infertile. Unlike in mice, Izumo1 knockout rat spermatozoa failed to bind to the oolemma. Further investigation revealed that the acrosome-intact sperm binding conceals a decreased number of the acrosome-reacted sperm bound to the oolemma in Izumo1 knockout mice. Of note, we could not see any apparent defects in the binding of the acrosome-reacted sperm to the oolemma in the mice lacking recently found fusion-indispensable genes, Fimp, Sof1, Spaca6, or Tmem95. Collectively, our data suggest that IZUMO1 is required for the sperm-oolemma binding prior to fusion at least in rat.

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