plasma membrane
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2022 ◽  
Vol 1249 ◽  
pp. 131604
Lais Alonso ◽  
Karlos Eduardo Pianoski ◽  
Antonio Alonso ◽  
Fernanda Andreia Rosa

Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
Amit Kumar ◽  
Xu Zhang ◽  
Oscar Vadas ◽  
Fisentzos A. Stylianou ◽  
Nicolas Dos Santos Pacheco ◽  

A model for parasitic motility has been proposed in which parasite filamentous actin (F-actin) is attached to surface adhesins by a large component of the glideosome, known as the glideosome-associated connector protein (GAC). This large 286 kDa protein interacts at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane with the phosphatidic acid-enriched inner leaflet and cytosolic tails of surface adhesins to connect them to the parasite actomyosin system. GAC is observed initially to the conoid at the apical pole and re-localised with the glideosome to the basal pole in gliding parasite. GAC presumably functions in force transmission to surface adhesins in the plasma membrane and not in force generation. Proper connection between F-actin and the adhesins is as important for motility and invasion as motor operation itself. This notion highlights the need for new structural information on GAC interactions, which has eluded the field since its discovery. We have obtained crystals that diffracted to 2.6–2.9 Å for full-length GAC from Toxoplasma gondii in native and selenomethionine-labelled forms. These crystals belong to space group P212121; cell dimensions are roughly a = 119 Å, b = 123 Å, c = 221 Å, α = 90°, β = 90° and γ = 90° with 1 molecule per asymmetric unit, suggesting a more compact conformation than previously proposed

2022 ◽  
Dylan Scott Eiger ◽  
Noelia Boldizsar ◽  
Christopher Cole Honeycutt ◽  
Julia Gardner ◽  
Stephen Kirchner ◽  

Some G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands act as biased agonists which preferentially activate specific signaling transducers over others. Although GPCRs are primarily found at the plasma membrane, GPCRs can traffic to and signal from many subcellular compartments. Here, we determine that differential subcellular signaling contributes to the biased signaling generated by three endogenous ligands of the chemokine GPCR CXCR3. The signaling profile of CXCR3 changed as it trafficked from the plasma membrane to endosomes in a ligand-specific manner. Endosomal signaling was critical for biased activation of G proteins, β-arrestins, and ERK1/2. In CD8+ T cells, the chemokines promoted unique transcriptional responses predicted to regulate inflammatory pathways. In a mouse model of contact hypersensitivity, β-arrestin-biased CXCR3-mediated inflammation was dependent on receptor internalization. Our work demonstrates that differential subcellular signaling is critical to the overall biased response observed at CXCR3, which has important implications for drugs targeting chemokine receptors and other GPCRs.

2022 ◽  
Alfredo Figueroa-Melendez ◽  
Leonora Martinez-Nunez ◽  
Adriana Maria Rico-Ramirez ◽  
Juan Manuel Martinez-Andrade ◽  
Mary Munson ◽  

The exocyst is a conserved multimeric complex that participates in the final steps of the secretion of vesicles. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, the exocyst is crucial for polar growth, morphology, and the organization of the Spitzenkorper (Spk), the apical body where secretory vesicles accumulate before being delivered to the plasma membrane. In the highly polarized cells of N. crassa, the exocyst subunits SEC-3, SEC-5, SEC-6, SEC-8, and SEC-15 were previously found localized at the plasma membrane of the apices of the cells, while EXO-70 and EXO-84 occupied the frontal outer layer of the Spk, occupied by vesicles. The localization of SEC-10 had remained so far elusive. In this work, SEC-10 was tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) either at its N- or C-terminus and found localized at the plasma membrane of growing hyphal tips, similar to what was previously observed for some exocyst subunits. While expression of an N-terminally tagged version of SEC-10 at its native locus was fully viable, expression of a C-terminally tagged version at its native locus resulted in severe hyphal growth and polarity defects. Additionally, a sec-10 knockout mutant in a heterokaryotic state (with genetically different nuclei) was viable but showed a strongly aberrant phenotype, confirming that this subunit is essential to maintain hyphal morphogenesis. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the lack of a Spk in the SEC-10-GFP strain, suggesting a critical role of the exocyst in the vesicular organization at the Spk. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed fewer peptides of exocyst subunits interacting with SEC-10-GFP than with GFP-SEC-10, suggesting an essential role of the C-terminus of SEC-10 in exocyst assembly and/or stability. Altogether, our data suggest that an unobstructed C-terminus of SEC-10 is indispensable for the exocyst complex function and that a GFP tag could be blocking important subunit-subunit interactions.

2022 ◽  
Hannah E Krawczyk ◽  
Siqi Sun ◽  
Nathan Doner ◽  
Qiqi Yan ◽  
Magdiel Sheng Satha Lim ◽  

Membrane contact sites (MCS) are inter-organellar connections that allow for the direct exchange of molecules, such as lipids or Ca2+ between organelles, but can also serve to tether organelles at specific locations within cells. Here we identified and characterised three proteins that form a lipid droplet (LD)-plasma membrane (PM) tethering complex in plant cells, namely LD-localised SEED LD PROTEIN (SLDP) 1 and 2 and PM-localised LD-PLASMA MEMBRANE ADAPTOR (LIPA). Using proteomics and different protein-protein interaction assays, we show that both SLDPs associate with LIPA. Disruption of either SLDP1 and 2 expression, or that of LIPA, leads to an aberrant clustering of LDs in Arabidopsis seedlings. Ectopic co-expression of one of the SLDPs with LIPA on the other hand is sufficient to reconstitute LD-PM tethering in Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes, a cell type characterised by dynamically moving LDs in the cytosolic streaming. Further, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed both SLDP2.1 and LIPA to be enriched at LD-PM contact sites in seedlings. These and other results suggest that SLDP and LIPA interact to form a tethering complex that anchors a subset of LDs to the PM during post-germinative seedling growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

2022 ◽  
Miguel Silva ◽  
Carla Calçada ◽  
Nuno Osório ◽  
Vitória Baptista ◽  
Vandana Thathy ◽  

Abstract Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an important role in mediating solute or drug transport across cellular membranes. Although this class of transporters has been well characterized in diverse organisms little is known about the physiological roles in Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite species. We studied the Plasmodium falciparum Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein 1 (PfMRP1; PF3D7_0112200), an ABC transporter localized to the parasite plasma membrane, generating genetic disrupted parasites. We demonstrate that parasites with disrupted pfmrp1 are resistant to folate analogs, methotrexate and aminopterin, with antimalarial activity. This phenotype occurs due to reduction in compound accumulation in the parasite cytoplasm. Phylogenetic analysis supports pfmrp1 being distantly related to ABC transporters in other eukaryotes, suggesting an unusual function. We propose that PfMRP1 can act as a solute importer, a function not previously observed in this organism.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Cátia Santos-Pereira ◽  
Lígia R. Rodrigues ◽  
Manuela Côrte-Real

Lactoferrin (Lf) is a milk-derived protein with well-recognized potential as a therapeutic agent against a wide variety of cancers. This natural protein exhibits health-promoting effects and has several interesting features, including its selectivity towards cancer cells, good tolerability in humans, worldwide availability, and holding a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. To prompt the rational clinical application of this promising anticancer compound, previous works aimed to unveil the molecular mechanisms underlying its selective anticancer activity, where plasmalemmal V-ATPase was identified as an Lf target in cancer cells. V-ATPase is a proton pump critical for cellular homeostasis that migrates to the plasma membrane of highly metastatic cancer cells contributing to the acidity of the tumor microenvironment. Cancer cells were found to be susceptible to Lf only when this proton pump is present at the plasma membrane. Plasmalemmal V-ATPase can thus be an excellent biomarker for driving treatment decisions and forecasting clinical outcomes of Lf-based anticancer strategies. Future research endeavors should thus seek to validate this biomarker by thorough preclinical and clinical studies, as well as to develop effective methods for its detection under clinical settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hongyang Du ◽  
Benxue Chen ◽  
Qiang Li ◽  
Huaipan Liu ◽  
Ronald Kurtenbach

Polyamines are small positively charged molecules in plants and play important functions in many biological processes under various environmental stresses. One of the most confounding problems relating to polyamines (PAs) in stresses is the lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying their function(s). Furthermore, a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the sub-cellular level, especially in tree plants under drought stress. Therefore, in this research, by simulating natural drought stress with polyethylene glycol (PEG) osmotic stress, the relationship between the levels of conjugated polyamines and the activity of H+-ATPase in the plasma membrane was elucidated with the roots of two plum (Prunus salicina L.) cultivars, which were different in drought tolerance, as experimental materials. Furthermore, free PA levels and the activities of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and transglutaminase (TGase), which were closely associated with the levels of free and conjugated PAs, were also detected. Results showed that under osmotic stress, the increases of the levels of non-covalently conjugated (non-CC) spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm), covalently conjugated (CC) putrescine (Put) and Spd in the plasma membrane of drought-tolerant Ganli No. 5 were more significant than those of drought-sensitive Suli No. 3, indicating that these conjugated PAs might be involved in the tolerance of plum seedlings to stress. Furthermore, the conjugated PAs were closely correlated with plum seedling growth, water retention capacity, plasma membrane damage degree, and hydrogen (H+)-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane. To get more complementary pieces of evidence, we subjected plum seedlings to combined treatments of PEG and exogenous PA (Spd and Spm), and an inhibitor of SAMDC [methylglyoxal-bis (guanylhydrazone), (MGBG)] or TGase (o-phenanthroline). These results collectively suggested that non-CC Spd and Spm, CC Put and Spd in plasma membrane might function in enhancing the tolerance of plum seedlings to osmotic stress by stabilizing membrane structure and therefore elevating H+-ATPase activity.

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