mode of transmission
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
W. Khan ◽  
A.A. Khan ◽  
J. Khan ◽  
N. Khatoon ◽  
S. Arshad ◽  

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 62-66
Herlinda Mahdania Harun ◽  
Rusli Rusli ◽  
Salsabila Dwi Yunita

COVID-19 is a group of infectious disease caused by the corona virus (SARS-CoV-2). The spread of this virus so quickly to various countries in the world, including Indonesia, has resulted in COVID-19 becoming a global pandemic as a result of which efforts to prevent and control this disease are expected. Residents have an important role in breaking the chain of transmission of COVID-19 so as not to cause new infections. Given the mode of transmission from individual to individual, transmission can occur both at home, traveling, at work, places of worship, tourist areas as well as other areas where people interact socially. Therefore, this service aims to provide knowledge to the community in the form of counseling so as to apply health protocols during the COVID-19 pandemic. Counseling uses lecture, discussion, and question and answer methods. The results of the counseling activity that was held for a day showed that there was still a lack of awareness of the residents of the Manggala village regarding efforts to implement health protocols during the COVID-19 pandemic. The counseling was attended by stakeholders and received a good response, this can be seen from the questions from the local community.

2021 ◽  
pp. sextrans-2021-055153
Jaspal Singh Dhaliwal ◽  
Lai Gwen Chan ◽  
Justine Chay Boon Goh ◽  
Karis Hui En Koh ◽  
Chen Seong Wong

ObjectivesResearch suggests a high prevalence of depression and anxiety in people living with HIV, resulting in negative health outcomes and poorer help-seeking behaviours when undetected. Subsequent disease progression and non-adherence to treatment constitute a significant barrier to HIV treatment. This paper aims to identify the risk factors for the development of psychological distress and non-adherence to antiretroviral medication in people living with HIV.MethodsAn HIV outpatient clinical service screened for anxiety and depressive symptoms. As part of a retrospective analysis of the cohort, independent sample t-test and χ2 test were conducted to examine differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients in demographic variables such as mode of transmission and disclosure to family; clinical indicators such as psychiatric history and history of alcohol and substance use; and outcome variables such as current psychological distress and non-adherence. Binary logistic regression was conducted to determine predictors of psychological distress and non-adherence.ResultsAfter adjusting for age, no history of alcohol use and psychiatric history were found to be significant risk factors for psychological distress during the programme. Older patients were less likely to be symptomatic during the programme. After adjusting for age, having received intervention and psychiatric history, significant risk factors for non-adherence to antiretroviral medication were mode of transmission, history of smoking and being symptomatic during the programme.ConclusionSignificant psychological distress occurring early in HIV care predicts future non-adherence to antiretroviral treatment, highlighting the importance of early detection and intervention for psychological distress in people living with HIV. Mental health interventions should be intercalated with treatment adherence interventions to improve HIV treatment outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 459-464
Waratchaya Putsiri ◽  
Subunya Jaroenjiengchai ◽  
Supanut Artamnuayvipas ◽  

COVID-19 is an infectious disease attributable to SARS-CoV-2, which is transmitted by direct and indirect transmission. There are some measures that have been introduced to society in order to prevent the spread of COVID-19 including face masks, hand hygiene, face shields, and social distancing. Face masks have become one of the most common preventive instruments against viral spreading. The primary use of face masks is to protect or contain the viral mode of transmission such as droplets. Face masks have different types that demonstrate specific uses. Hand hygiene is an accessible method that people can follow. The benefit of hand hygiene appears to be the ability to trap germs and remove them away. In a more sophisticated use, face shields are used together with face masks in order to better the performance of protecting the virus from different directions. Social distancing is known as one of the popular measures among many countries. To decrease the rate of COVID-19 infection, standing 1-2 metres is recommended. We hope that our review paper would provide useful information for the readers, which could be applied in real life. Also, we fully appreciate being a reliable supplement for the following research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 135-140
Patmawati Hasan ◽  
Elvis Pawan

Twano Health Center is one of the technical implementing units of the Jayapura City Health Office which organizes Health Efforts, but the constraints regarding the facilities and infrastructure of the Puskesmas are not yet adequate in supporting health services. Based on observations, the increase in the level of malaria sufferers in the Jayapura area is caused by parasites (protozoa) of the genus Plasmodium and the mode of transmission is through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. There are two types of malaria that are often experienced by Jayapura residents, namely Tropical Malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) and Tertiana (Plasmodium vivax). The purpose of this study is to create an expert system that can diagnose early diseases such as an expert or doctor using the Certainty Factor method which expresses belief in an event (fact or hypothesis) based on evidence or expert judgment in early diagnosis of Tropical Malaria and Tertiana. The research subjects taken were 5 patients who had symptoms of Malaria and 1 doctor to determine the symptoms of the disease) The expert system using the Certainty Factor method was used because this method was suitable in determining the disease, and the result was a percentage which was the level of accuracy in determining the patient's disease. Determination of the percentage is influenced by the MB value (a measure of the increase in confidence) and the MD value (a measure of the increase in distrust) obtained from the assessment of an expert. For data modeling using data flow diagrams (DFD) and website-based. Total accurate patient recapitulation results are 80% of the Expert System for Early Diagnosis of Tropical Malaria and Tertiana using Certainty Factor

2021 ◽  
Vol 71 (11) ◽  
pp. 2683-2686
Farhan Ali ◽  
Kashif Ali

During a pandemic, we see that the world has controlled covid19 by taking necessary measures. Covid19 and tuberculosis (TB) have mainly the same mode of transmission. The efforts, we took to eliminate covid19, could also be taken to decrease TB. Here, I proposed a strategy that could help to deal with TB suspected cases and to avoid exposure to other people who are coming in hospital setups. Continuous...

Trisha Greenhalgh ◽  
M Ozbilgin ◽  
D Tomlinson

This paper offers a critique of UK government policy based on mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (which in turn followed misleading advice from the World Health Organisation) through the lens of policymaking as narrative. Two flawed narratives—“Covid is droplet- not airborne-spread” and “Covid is situationally airborne” (that is, airborne transmission is unusual but may occur during aerosol-generating medical procedures and severe indoor crowding)—quickly became dominant despite no evidence to support them. Two important counter-narratives—“Covid is unequivocally airborne” and “Everyone generates aerosols; everyone is vulnerable”— were sidelined despite strong evidence to support them. Tragic consequences of the flawed policy narrative unfolded as social dramas. For example, droplet precautions became ritualised; care home residents died in their thousands; public masking became a libertarian lightning rod; and healthcare settings became occupational health battlegrounds. In a discussion, we call for bold action to ensure that the science of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is freed from the shackles of historical errors, scientific vested interests, ideological manipulation and policy satisficing.

2021 ◽  
Chun-Jen Liu

HBV disease is a significant cause of acute and chronic liver disease worldwide. Mother-to-infant transmission is the main mode of transmission to susceptible subjects, which can be prevented with HBV vaccine alone or in combination with hepatitis B immunoglobulin. This intervention markedly reduces the number of new HBsAg carriers. For subjects not responding to current HBV vaccines as reflected by an inadequate anti-HBs titer, future generation vaccines incorporating additional vaccine components such as preS1 and preS2 may improve the efficacy of protective antibody production. Apart from preventative vaccines, future therapeutic vaccines along with current anti-HBV treatment strategies might enhance the rate of functional cures as indicated by the loss of HBsAg.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 026-033
Azhar Ammara ◽  
Saeed Umar ◽  
Piracha Zahra Zahid ◽  
Amjad Areesha ◽  
Ahmed Aftab ◽  

SARS-CoV-2 a virulent disease that established the entire wide world due to its severity. Its 1st case was rumored in Wuhan, China within the year 2019 and it had been the beginning of this pandemic. This virus killed virtually a complete of 4,465,683 folks round the globe until date. Despite the fact that viral co-infections have the ability to alter the host’s illness pattern, few research have looked at the disease outcomes in patients who are infected with HIV and hCoVs. Despite the fact that HIV-positive people can be infected with hCoVs, researchers are now revealing that their chances of acquiring serious CoV-related disorders are typically similar to what is seen in the general population. The relation between SARS-CoV-2 and HBV was summarized rather HBV effects the severity of COVID patient or not. SARS-CoV-2 could be a severe acute metabolic process syndrome. Scientists found ways in which to treat this virus, some were useful and alternative weren’t that a lot of effective. Immunizing agent was one among the most important considerations for the entire world. This virus conjointly fashioned an entry for alternative co-infections too. SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus, both causes respiratory diseases which confer as an extensive array of illness from asymptomatic or benign to critical disease and death. Also the mode of transmission and symptoms of influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 are same. Viral and bacterial rate is higher in SARS-CoV-2 negative patient but are comparable. Serologies facts confirmed that patients with effective results for dengue virus (DENV) NS1 antigen and anti-dengue IgM were also attentive to COVID-19 speedy antibody tests, suggesting dengue COVID-19 co-infection. Mixed infection of dengue and COVID-19 needs unique interest from all dengue-common nations in Asia, especially the ones with limited resources. To our knowledge, this is the primary showed case of co-infection of dengue and COVID-19 in Indonesia. During patient’s TB course, COVID-19 can occur at any time with worse consequences for the patients who are affected by active pulmonary disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. e1262
Asma Tadj ◽  
Seddiki Sidi Mohammed Lahbib

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as a public health epidemic emergency of international concern in March 2020. In just two years, this pandemic has invaded most countries and killed more than 4,800,000. The evolution of the number of cases and contaminations per day remains alarming. In May 2021, the bar of 400,000 new cases was crossed in India; this represents the highest daily number of cases recorded by a country in the history of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, new variants of the virus emerged in some countries. The international scientific and political community has organized itself and engaged in a race against time to find possible remedies. During this period, when people were forced to confine themselves to their homes, the way of life changed remarkably. From the declaration of the pandemic to the conception of the first vaccine, people are still in shock. This article is a short-review that explains in general what the COVID-19; the origin, biology and genetics as well as the mode of transmission and contamination of the coronavirus are discussed.

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