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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Khalid ◽  
R. Siddique ◽  
S. Shaheen ◽  
M. N. Shahid ◽  
Z. Shamim ◽  

Abstract Novel coronavirus (nCoV) namely “SARS-CoV-2” is being found responsible for current PANDEMIC commenced from Wuhan (China) since December 2019 and has been described with epidemiological linkage to China in about 221 countries and territories until now. In this study we have characterized the genetic lineage of SARS-CoV-2 and report the recombination within the genus and subgenus of coronaviruses. Phylogenetic relationship of thirty nine coronaviruses belonging to its four genera and five subgenera was analyzed by using the Neighbor-joining method using MEGA 6.0. Phylogenetic trees of full length genome, various proteins (spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid) nucleotide sequences were constructed separately. Putative recombination was probed via RDP4. Our analysis describes that the “SARS-CoV-2” although shows great similarity to Bat-SARS-CoVs sequences through whole genome (giving sequence similarity 89%), exhibits conflicting grouping with the Bat-SARS-like coronavirus sequences (MG772933 and MG772934). Furthermore, seven recombination events were observed in SARS-CoV-2 (NC_045512) by RDP4. But not a single recombination event fulfills the high level of certainty. Recombination mostly housed in spike protein genes than rest of the genome indicating breakpoint cluster arises beyond the 95% and 99% breakpoint density intervals. Genetic similarity levels observed among “SARS-CoV-2” and Bat-SARS-CoVs advocated that the latter did not exhibit the specific variant that cause outbreak in humans, proposing a suggestion that “SARS-CoV-2” has originated possibly from bats. These genomic features and their probable association with virus characteristics along with virulence in humans require further consideration.

2022 ◽  
Tang Li ◽  
Yanbin Yin

Background: Large scale metagenome assembly and binning to generate metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) has become possible in the past five years. As a result, millions of MAGs have been produced and increasingly included in pan-genomics workflow. However, pan-genome analyses of MAGs may suffer from the known issues with MAGs: fragmentation, incompleteness, and contamination, due to mis-assembly and mis-binning. Here, we conducted a critical assessment of including MAGs in pan-genome analysis, by comparing pan-genome analysis results of complete bacterial genomes and simulated MAGs. Results: We found that incompleteness led to more significant core gene loss than fragmentation. Contamination had little effect on core genome size but had major influence on accessory genomes. The core gene loss remained when using different pan-genome analysis tools and when using a mixture of MAGs and complete genomes. Importantly, the core gene loss was partially alleviated by lowering the core gene threshold and using gene prediction algorithms that consider fragmented genes, but to a less degree when incompleteness was higher than 5%. The core gene loss also led to incorrect pan-genome functional predictions and inaccurate phylogenetic trees. Conclusions: We conclude that lowering core gene threshold and predicting genes in metagenome mode (as Anvio does with Prodigal) are necessary in pan-genome analysis of MAGs to alleviate the accuracy loss. Better quality control of MAGs and development of new pan-genome analysis tools specifically designed for MAGs are needed in future studies.

Diversity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 53
Luca Vecchioni ◽  
Andrew C. Ching ◽  
Federico Marrone ◽  
Marco Arculeo ◽  
Peter J. Hundt ◽  

We used a multi-locus phylogenetic approach (i.e., combining both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA fragments) to address some long-standing taxonomic inconsistencies within the diverse fish clade of Combtooth Blennies (Blenniidae—unranked clade Almadablennius). The obtained phylogenetic trees revealed some major inconsistencies in the current taxonomy of Parablennini, such as the paraphyletic status of the Salaria and Parablennius genera, casting some doubt regarding their actual phylogenetic relationship. Furthermore, a scarce-to-absent genetic differentiation was observed among the three species belonging to the genus Chasmodes. This study provides an updated taxonomy and phylogeny of the former genus Salaria, ascribing some species to the new genus Salariopsis gen. nov., and emphasizes the need for a revision of the genus Parablennius.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Xin Hua ◽  
Wei Song ◽  
Kangzong Wang ◽  
Xue Yin ◽  
Changqi Hao ◽  

AbstractThe genes in polyphyllins pathway mixed with other steroid biosynthetic genes form an extremely complex biosynthetic network in Paris polyphylla with a giant genome. The lack of genomic data and tissue specificity causes the study of the biosynthetic pathway notably difficult. Here, we report an effective method for the prediction of key genes of polyphyllin biosynthesis. Full-length transcriptome from eight different organs via hybrid sequencing of next generation sequencingand third generation sequencing platforms annotated two 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs), 216 cytochrome P450s (CYPs), and 199 UDP glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Combining metabolic differences, gene-weighted co-expression network analysis, and phylogenetic trees, the candidate ranges of OSC, CYP, and UGT genes were further narrowed down to 2, 15, and 24, respectively. Beside the three previously characterized CYPs, we identified the OSC involved in the synthesis of cycloartenol and the UGT (PpUGT73CR1) at the C-3 position of diosgenin and pennogenin in P. polyphylla. This study provides an idea for the investigation of gene cluster deficiency biosynthesis pathways in medicinal plants.

ZooKeys ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 1081 ◽  
pp. 111-125
Wenjing Li ◽  
Ning Qiu ◽  
Hejun Du

Rhodeus cyanorostris Li, Liao & Arai, 2020 is a freshwater fish that is endemic to China and restricted to Chengdu City in Sichuan Province. This study is the first to sequence and characterize the complete mitochondrial genome of R. cyanorostris. The mitogenome of R. cyanorostris is 16580 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region (D-loop). The base composition of the sequence is 28.5% A, 27.6% C, 26.4% T, and 17.5% G, with a bias toward A+T. The genome structure, nucleotide composition, and codon usage of the mitogenome of R. cyanorostris are consistent with those of other species of Rhodeus. To verify the molecular phylogeny of the genus Rhodeus, we provide new insights to better understand the taxonomic status of R. cyanorostris. The phylogenetic trees present four major clades based on 19 mitogenomic sequences from 16 Rhodeus species. Rhodeus cyanorostris exhibits the closest phylogenetic relationship with R. pseudosericeus, R. amarus, and R. sericeus. This study discloses the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of R. cyanorostris for the first time and provides the most comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus Rhodeus based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences. The information obtained in this study will provide new insights for conservation, phylogenetic analysis, and evolutionary biology research.

Anthony Ford ◽  
Daniel Kepple ◽  
Jonathan Williams ◽  
Gabrielle Kolesar ◽  
Colby T. Ford ◽  

The unique biological features of Plasmodium vivax not only make it difficult to control but also to eliminate. For the transmission of the malaria parasite from infected human to the vector, gametocytes play a major role. The transmission potential of a malarial infection is inferred based on microscopic detection of gametocytes and molecular screening of genes in the female gametocytes. Microscopy-based detection methods could grossly underestimate the reservoirs of infection as gametocytes may occur as submicroscopic or as micro- or macro-gametocytes. The identification of genes that are highly expressed and polymorphic in male and female gametocytes is critical for monitoring changes not only in their relative proportions but also the composition of gametocyte clones contributing to transmission over time. Recent transcriptomic study revealed two distinct clusters of highly correlated genes expressed in the P. vivax gametocytes, indicating that the male and female terminal gametocytogeneses are independently regulated. However, the detective power of these genes is unclear. In this study, we compared genetic variations of 15 and 11 genes expressed, respectively, in the female and male gametocytes among P. vivax isolates from Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America. Further, we constructed phylogenetic trees to determine the resolution power and clustering patterns of gametocyte clones. As expected, Pvs25 (PVP01_0616100) and Pvs16 (PVP01_0305600) expressed in the female gametocytes were highly conserved in all geographical isolates. In contrast, genes including 6-cysteine protein Pvs230 (PVP01_0415800) and upregulated in late gametocytes ULG8 (PVP01_1452800) expressed in the female gametocytes, as well as two CPW-WPC family proteins (PVP01_1215900 and PVP01_1320100) expressed in the male gametocytes indicated considerably high nucleotide and haplotype diversity among isolates. Parasite samples expressed in male and female gametocyte genes were observed in separate phylogenetic clusters and likely represented distinct gametocyte clones. Compared to Pvs25, Pvs230 (PVP01_0415800) and a CPW-WPC family protein (PVP01_0904300) showed higher expression in a subset of Ethiopian P. vivax samples. Thus, Pvs230, ULG8, and CPW-WPC family proteins including PVP01_0904300, PVP01_1215900, and PVP01_1320100 could potentially be used as novel biomarkers for detecting both sexes of P. vivax gametocytes in low-density infections and estimating transmission reservoirs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Da-Cheng Hao ◽  
Yulu Zhang ◽  
Chun-Nian He ◽  
Pei-Gen Xiao

The medicinal properties of plants can be evolutionarily predicted by phylogeny-based methods, which, however, have not been used to explore the regularity of therapeutic effects of Chinese plants utilized by ethnic minorities. This study aims at exploring the distribution law of therapeutic efficacy of Ranunculales plants on the phylogenetic tree of Chinese species. We collected therapeutic efficacy data of 551 ethnomedicinal species belonging to five species-rich families of Ranunculales; these therapeutic data were divided into 15 categories according to the impacted tissues and organs. The phylogenetic tree of angiosperm species was used to analyze the phylogenetic signals of ethnomedicinal plants by calculating the net relatedness index (NRI) and nearest taxon index (NTI) in R language. The NRI results revealed a clustered structure for eight medicinal categories (poisoning/intoxication, circulatory, gastrointestinal, eyesight, oral, pediatric, skin, and urinary disorders) and overdispersion for the remaining seven (neurological, general, hepatobiliary, musculoskeletal, otolaryngologic, reproductive, and respiratory disorders), while the NTI metric identified the clustered structure for all. Statistically, NRI and NTI values were significant in 5 and 11 categories, respectively. It was found that Mahonia eurybracteata has therapeutic effects on all categories. iTOL was used to visualize the distribution of treatment efficacy on species phylogenetic trees. By figuring out the distribution of therapeutic effects of Ranunculales medicinal plants, the importance of phylogenetic methods in finding potential medicinal resources is highlighted; NRI, NTI, and similar indices can be calculated to help find taxonomic groups with medicinal efficacy based on the phylogenetic tree of flora in different geographic regions.

2022 ◽  
Fanshu Gong ◽  
Yaping Geng ◽  
Pengfei Zhang ◽  
Feng Zhang ◽  
Xinfeng Fan ◽  

Abstract Huangqi (Astragalus) is a versatile herb that possesses several therapeutic effects against a variety of diseases, especially lung diseases. The aim of this study was to establish a core collection of Astragalus germplasm resources based on molecular 10 SSR markers. Based on 380 samples of Astragalus collected from different areas, five different methods were utilized to construct the core collection of Astragalus, including PowerCore-based M strategy, CoreFinder-based M strategy, Core Hunter-based stepwise sampling, PowerMarker-based simulated annealing algorithm based on allele maximization, and PowerMarker-based simulated annealing algorithm based on maximizing genetic diversity. Of the constructed Astragalus core collections, the CoreFinder-based M strategy was found to be the most suitable approach as it reserved all the alleles and most of the genetic diversity parameters were higher than those of the initial collection. Additional analyses demonstrated that the genetic diversity of the core collection matched the properties of the initial collection. Further, the phylogenetic trees indicated that the population structure of the core collection was similar to that of the initial collection. In addition, our results showed that the optimal grouping value of K was 2. The construction of a core collection is beneficial for the understanding, management, and utilization of Astragalus. Moreover, this study will act as a valuable reference for constructing core collections for other plants or fungi.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ilona A. Ruhl ◽  
Andriy Sheremet ◽  
Chantel C. Furgason ◽  
Susanne Krause ◽  
Robert M. Bowers ◽  

GAL08 are bacteria belonging to an uncultivated phylogenetic cluster within the phylum Acidobacteria. We detected a natural population of the GAL08 clade in sediment from a pH-neutral hot spring located in British Columbia, Canada. To shed light on the abundance and genomic potential of this clade, we collected and analyzed hot spring sediment samples over a temperature range of 24.2–79.8°C. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and qPCR using a primer set developed specifically to detect the GAL08 16S rRNA gene revealed that absolute and relative abundances of GAL08 peaked at 65°C along three temperature gradients. Analysis of sediment collected over multiple years and locations revealed that the GAL08 group was consistently a dominant clade, comprising up to 29.2% of the microbial community based on relative read abundance and up to 4.7 × 105 16S rRNA gene copy numbers per gram of sediment based on qPCR. Using a medium quality threshold, 25 single amplified genomes (SAGs) representing these bacteria were generated from samples taken at 65 and 77°C, and seven metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were reconstructed from samples collected at 45–77°C. Based on average nucleotide identity (ANI), these SAGs and MAGs represented three separate species, with an estimated average genome size of 3.17 Mb and GC content of 62.8%. Phylogenetic trees constructed from 16S rRNA gene sequences and a set of 56 concatenated phylogenetic marker genes both placed the three GAL08 bacteria as a distinct subgroup of the phylum Acidobacteria, representing a candidate order (Ca. Frugalibacteriales) within the class Blastocatellia. Metabolic reconstructions from genome data predicted a heterotrophic metabolism, with potential capability for aerobic respiration, as well as incomplete denitrification and fermentation. In laboratory cultivation efforts, GAL08 counts based on qPCR declined rapidly under atmospheric levels of oxygen but increased slightly at 1% (v/v) O2, suggesting a microaerophilic lifestyle.

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