critically endangered
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2022 ◽  
Vol 269 ◽  
pp. 112824
Steven E. Sesnie ◽  
Lacrecia Johnson ◽  
Emily Yurcich ◽  
Thomas D. Sisk ◽  
John Goodwin ◽  

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Jakub Skorupski

In this paper, a complete mitochondrial genome of the critically endangered European mink Mustela lutreola L., 1761 is reported. The mitogenome was 16,504 bp in length and encoded the typical 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes, and harboured a putative control region. The A+T content of the entire genome was 60.06% (A > T > C > G), and the AT-skew and GC-skew were 0.093 and −0.308, respectively. The encoding-strand identity of genes and their order were consistent with a collinear gene order characteristic for vertebrate mitogenomes. The start codons of all protein-coding genes were the typical ATN. In eight cases, they were ended by complete stop codons, while five had incomplete termination codons (TA or T). All tRNAs had a typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except tRNASer(AGC) and tRNALys, which lacked the DHU stem and had reduced DHU loop, respectively. Both rRNAs were capable of folding into complex secondary structures, containing unmatched base pairs. Eighty-one single nucleotide variants (substitutions and indels) were identified. Comparative interspecies analyses confirmed the close phylogenetic relationship of the European mink to the so-called ferret group, clustering the European polecat, the steppe polecat and the black-footed ferret. The obtained results are expected to provide useful molecular data, informing and supporting effective conservation measures to save M. lutreola.

André Chein Alonso ◽  
Igor Pfeifer Coelho ◽  
Eduardo Marques ◽  
Mônica Mafra Valença-Montenegro ◽  
Raone Beltrão-Mendes ◽  

Li Ting Yang ◽  
Tao Sun ◽  
Yingming Zhou ◽  
Chuangbin Tang ◽  
Chengming Huang ◽  

Play behavior is a significant trait of immature nonhuman primates (hereafter primates), which may play important roles in sensory, locomotor, socio-cognitive, and developmental processes in primates. It has been suggested that function of play is to practice and improve motor skills related to foraging, avoiding predation, attracting mates, raising offspring, and also is to strength social skills concerning to cementing friendly relationships and defraying aggression among individuals. From September 2009 to August 2010, we investigated play behaviors of 1-12-month-old white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) which is a critically endangered primate endemic to China. During this study, we recorded 4,421 play bouts and 1,302 minutes of play time of 7 infants in total. We found that infants had different play behavior patterns at different ages. Specifically, non-social play behaviors appeared at 1 month of age, social play behaviors at 2 months, and all types of social and non-social play behaviors at 3 months. The frequency and duration of non-social play peaked at 5 months and then decreased, while social play appeared at 2 months and gradually increased with age. Non-social play did not differ between the sexes, whereas social play showed sex specificity, with higher frequency and duration of social play in male infants than in female infants. In addition, male and female white-headed langur infants appeared to prefer the individuals of same sex as social playmates. In conclusion, we first reported the pattern of play behavior of a critically endangered langur aged 1 to 12 months though the sample size is small, our results suggest they may have the adaptation of play behaviors in ages and sexes, which may help them adapt to their habitat and social system.

M. Salah Uddin Kabir ◽  
M. Rafiqul Islam Sarder ◽  
M. Matiur Rahman ◽  
M. Fazlul Awal Mollah ◽  
N. Binte Ryhan

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12614
George Gosline ◽  
Martin Cheek ◽  
Jean Michel Onana ◽  
Eric Ngansop Tchatchouang ◽  
Xander M. van der Burgt ◽  

Background The Ebo Forest area is a highly threatened centre of diversity in the Littoral Region of Cameroon, globally important for conservation with many threatened species including 68 threatened species of plant, yet not formally protected. The tropical African evergreen forest tree genus Uvariopsis Engl. & Diels (Annonaceae) is characterised by unisexual, usually cauliflorous flowers with a uniseriate corolla of four petals, and two sepals. Cameroon is the centre of diversity of the genus with 14 of the 19 known species. Methods The herbarium collection MacKinnon 51 from Ebo is hypothesized to represent a new species to science of Uvariopsis. This hypothesis is tested by the study of herbarium specimens from a number of herbaria known to hold important collections from Cameroon and surrounding countries. Results We test the hypothesis that MacKinnon 51 represents a new species to science, using the most recent dichotomous identification key, and comparing it morphologically with reference material of all known species of the genus. We make a detailed comparative morphological study focussing on three other Cameroonian species, Uvariopsis solheidii, U. korupensis and the sympatric U. submontana. In the context of a review of the pollination biology of Uvariopsis, we speculate that in a genus otherwise with species with dull, flesh-coloured (pink, red to brown) flowers pollinated (where known) by diptera, orthoptera and blattodea (flies, crickets and cockroaches), the glossy, pale yellow-green flowers of Uvariopsis dicaprio, with additional traits unique in the genus, may be pollinated by nocturnal moths. Based on MacKinnon 51, we formally name Uvariopsis dicaprio Cheek & Gosline (Annonaceae) as new to science, and we describe, and illustrate, and map it. Restricted so far to a single site in evergreen forest in the Ebo Forest, Littoral Region, Cameroon, Uvariopsis dicaprio is provisionally assessed as Critically Endangered using the IUCN, 2012 standard because the forest habitat of this species remains unprotected, and there exist imminent threats of logging and conversion to plantations. Discussion We show that the highest density of species of the genus (12), and of narrow endemics (5), is found in the Cross-Sanaga Interval of SE Nigeria and Western Cameroon. A revised key to the 14 Cameroonian species of Uvariopsis is presented. We review the other seven narrowly endemic and threatened species unique to the Ebo forest of Cameroon and discuss the phytogeographic affinities of the area. Conclusions Uvariopsis dicaprio adds to the growing list of species threatened with extinction at Ebo Forest due to current anthropogenic pressures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Sven-Erick Weiss ◽  
Arsalan Emami-Khoyi ◽  
Horst Kaiser ◽  
Paul D. Cowley ◽  
Nicola C. James ◽  

The critically endangered estuarine pipefish, Syngnathus watermeyeri, is one of Africa’s rarest fish species and currently faces a significant risk of extinction. A combination of anthropogenic and natural factors threaten submerged macrophyte beds in the two South African estuaries (Bushmans and Kariega) in which the species’ only two known remaining populations reside. Here, we genotyped 34 pipefish from both populations using genome-wide data to determine whether the two estuaries harbour distinct genetic diversity, such that translocating individuals between them might improve the genetic health of both. Our results show that both populations are highly inbred, and no statistically significant genetic structure was found between them. Moreover, individuals both within and between estuaries were very closely related to each other. These results indicate that the remaining populations of the estuarine pipefish suffer from the adverse genetic effects of small population sizes. Even though recent surveys have estimated population sizes in the order of thousands of individuals, these may fluctuate considerably. Although the translocation of genetically similar individuals between habitats will not increase local genetic diversity, the creation of additional populations across the species’ historical range may be a suitable conservation strategy to prevent further loss of genetic diversity, and to minimise the overall extinction risk posed by environmental stochasticity.

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