The mitochondrial genome and phylogenetic analysis of the tick Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis Teng, 1980 (Acari:Ixodidae)

Tianhong Wang ◽  
Zihao Wang ◽  
Ruwei Bai ◽  
Zhijun Yu ◽  
Jingze Liu

Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis is an endemic species and mainly inhabiting in the northwestern plateau of China, which can transmit many zoonotic pathogens and cause great harm to animals. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of H. qinghaiensis was assembled through the Illumina HiSeq platform. The mitogenome was 14,533 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 3 noncoding regions (NCRs). The bias towards a high A+T content with 77.65% in mitogenome of H. qinghaiensis. The rearrangement of mitochondrial genes in H. qinghaiensis was consistent with other hard ticks. The phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenation of 13 PCGs from 65 tick mitogenomes showed that the H. qinghaiensis was clustered into a well-supported clade within the Haemaphysalis genus. This is the first complete mitogenome sequence of H. qinghaiensis, which provides a useful reference for understanding of the taxonomic and genetics of ticks.

ZooKeys ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 1005 ◽  
pp. 57-72
I-Chen Wang ◽  
Hung-Du Lin ◽  
Chih-Ming Liang ◽  
Chi-Chun Huang ◽  
Rong-Da Wang ◽  

The cyprinid genus Onychostoma Günther, 1896 consists of 24 valid species distributed in Southeast Asia, including Taiwan, Hainan, mainland China and the Indochina region. In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of O. lepturum, which is 16,598 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a typical control region (D-loop). To verify the molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Acrossocheilinae, we provide new insights to better understand the taxonomic status of Acrossocheilus, Onychostoma and Folifer brevifilis. The phylogenetic trees presented three major clades based on the 13 protein-coding genes from 28 Acrossocheilinae species. Clades I and II represent the Onychostoma and Acrossocheilus groups, respectively. Species of Acrossocheilus, Onychostoma and F. brevifilis are included in Clade III, which is considered as an ancestral group. This work provides genomic variation information and improves our understanding of the Acrossocheilinae mitogenome, which will be most valuable in providing new insights for phylogenetic analysis and population genetics research.

2018 ◽  
Vol 94 ◽  
P. Zhang ◽  
R.K. Ran ◽  
A.Y. Abdullahi ◽  
X.L. Shi ◽  
Y. Huang ◽  

AbstractDipetalonema gracile is a common parasite in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), which can cause malnutrition and progressive wasting of the host, and lead to death in the case of massive infection. This study aimed to identify a suspected D. gracile worm from a dead squirrel monkey by means of molecular biology, and to amplify its complete mitochondrial genome by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis. The results identified the worm as D. gracile, and the full length of its complete mitochondrial genome was 13,584 bp, which contained 22 tRNA genes, 12 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, one AT-rich region and one small non-coding region. The nucleotide composition included A (16.89%), G (20.19%), T (56.22%) and C (6.70%), among which A + T = 73.11%. The 12 protein-coding genes used TTG and ATT as start codons, and TAG and TAA as stop codons. Among the 22 tRNA genes, only trnS1AGN and trnS2UCN exhibited the TΨC-loop structure, while the other 20 tRNAs showed the TV-loop structure. The rrnL (986 bp) and rrnS (685 bp) genes were single-stranded and conserved in secondary structure. This study has enriched the mitochondrial gene database of Dipetalonema and laid a scientific basis for further study on classification, and genetic and evolutionary relationships of Dipetalonema nematodes.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 15 (11) ◽  
pp. e0242541
Lvpei Du ◽  
Shanya Cai ◽  
Jun Liu ◽  
Ruoyu Liu ◽  
Haibin Zhang

Phymorhynchus is a genus of deep-sea snails that are most distributed in hydrothermal vent or cold seep environments. In this study, we presented the complete mitochondrial genome of P. buccinoides, a cold seep snail from the South China Sea. It is the first mitochondrial genome of a cold seep member of the superfamily Conoidea. The mitochondrial genome is 15,764 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. These genes are encoded on the positive strand, except for 8 tRNA genes that are encoded on the negative strand. The start codon ATG and 3 types of stop codons, TAA, TAG and the truncated termination codon T, are used in the 13 PCGs. All 13 PCGs in the 26 species of Conoidea share the same gene order, while several tRNA genes have been translocated. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. buccinoides clustered with Typhlosyrinx sp., Eubela sp., and Phymorhynchus sp., forming the Raphitomidae clade, with high support values. Positive selection analysis showed that a residue located in atp6 (18 S) was identified as the positively selected site with high posterior probabilities, suggesting potential adaption to the cold seep environment. Overall, our data will provide a useful resource on the evolutionary adaptation of cold seep snails for future studies.

Zootaxa ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 4747 (3) ◽  
pp. 547-561

Zicrona caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758) is a cosmopolitan stink bug species, which belongs to the predatory subfamily Asopinae. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Zicrona caerulea from Shanxi, China was sequenced for the first time, using next generation sequencing. The mitogenome was found to be 15,479 bp in length. It contained 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a typical control region. This research revealed an overall A+T content of 77.14%. All tRNA genes had a clover-leaf structure except for trnS1, which lacks a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm; and for trnV, the DHU arm forms a simple loop. The lengths of rrnS and rrnL were 797 bp and 1,285 bp, respectively. Because of a shortage in tandem repeats, the A+T-rich region was 644 bp in length. Phylogenetic relationships based on these mitogenomes, using Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood methods, showed that Zicrona caerulea belongs to Asopinae. The monophyly of families of the Pentatomoidea is supported, albeit limited taxon sampling. 

2016 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Li-Shang Dai ◽  
Bao-Jian Zhu ◽  
Yue Zhao ◽  
Cong-Fen Zhang ◽  
Chao-Liang Liu

Abstract In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Eligma narcissus and compared it with 18 other lepidopteran species. The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) was a circular molecule of 15,376 bp containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and an adenine (A) + thymine (T) − rich region. The positive AT skew (0.007) indicated the occurrence of more As than Ts. The arrangement of 13 PCGs was similar to that of other sequenced lepidopterans. All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which was initiated by the CGA sequence, as observed in other lepidopterans. The results of the codon usage analysis indicated that Asn, Ile, Leu, Tyr and Phe were the five most frequent amino acids. All tRNA genes were shown to be folded into the expected typical cloverleaf structure observed for mitochondrial tRNA genes. Phylogenetic relationships were analyzed based on the nucleotide sequences of 13 PCGs from other insect mitogenomes, which confirmed that E. narcissus is a member of the Noctuidae superfamily.

ZooKeys ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 925 ◽  
pp. 73-88
Chaoyi Hu ◽  
Shuaibin Wang ◽  
Bisheng Huang ◽  
Hegang Liu ◽  
Lei Xu ◽  

Scolopendra mutilans L. Koch, 1878 is an important Chinese animal with thousands of years of medicinal history. However, the genomic information of this species is limited, which hinders its further application. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of S. mutilans was sequenced and assembled by next-generation sequencing. The genome is 15,011 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 14 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes. Most PCGs start with the ATN initiation codon, and all PCGs have the conventional stop codons TAA and TAG. The S. mutilans mitogenome revealed nine simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and an obviously lower GC content compared with other seven centipede mitogenomes previously sequenced. After analysis of homologous regions between the eight centipede mitogenomes, the S. mutilans mitogenome further showed clear genomic rearrangements. The phylogenetic analysis of eight centipedes using 13 conserved PCG genes was finally performed. The phylogenetic reconstructions showed Scutigeromorpha as a separate group, and Scolopendromorpha in a sister-group relationship with Lithobiomorpha and Geophilomorpha. Collectively, the S. mutilans mitogenome provided new genomic resources, which will improve its medicinal research and applications in the future.

ZooKeys ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 790 ◽  
pp. 127-144 ◽  
Qiao-Hua Zhang ◽  
Pan Huang ◽  
Bin Chen ◽  
Ting-Jing Li

To date, only one mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) in the Eumeninae has been reported in the world and this is the first report in China. The mitogenome ofO.a.aterrimusis 17 972 bp long, and contains 38 genes, including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 23 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, a long non-coding region (NCR), and a control region (CR). The mitogenome has 79.43% A + T content, its 13 PCGs use ATN as the initiation codon except forcox1using TTG, and nine genes used complete translation termination TAA and four genes have incomplete stop codon T (cox2,cox3,nad4, andcytb). Twenty-two of 23 tRNAs can form the typical cloverleaf secondary structure except fortrnS1. The CR is 1 078 bp long with 84.69% A+T content, comprising 28 bp tandem repeat sequences and 13 bp T-strech. There are two gene rearrangements which are an extratrnM2located betweentrnQandnad2and thetrnL2in the upstream ofnad1. Within all rearrangements of these mitogenomes reported in the family Vespidae, the translocation betweentrnS1andtrnEgenes only appears in Vespinae, and the translocation oftrnYin Polistinae and Vespinae. The absent codons of 13 PCGs in Polistinae are more than those both in Vespinae and Eumeninae in the family Vespidae. The study reports the complete mitogenome ofO.a.aterrimus, compares the characteristics and construct phylogenetic relationships of the mitogenomes in the family Vespidae.

2020 ◽  
Yan Cheng ◽  
Xiaoxue He ◽  
S. V. G. N. Priyadarshani ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Li Ye ◽  

Abstract Background Suaeda glauca is a halophyte widely distributed in saline and sandy beaches, with strong saline-alkali tolerance. It is also a beautiful landscape plant with high development prospects and scientific research value. The S. glauca chloroplast genome has recently been reported; however, the mitochondria genome is still unexplored. Results This study assembled the mitochondria genome and annotated the mitochondrial genes of S. glauca based on the Pacbio long reads. The circular mitochondrial genome of S. glauca has a length of 474,330 bp. The base composition of the S. glauca mt genome showed A (27.96%), T (28.01%), C (21.64%), G (21.64%). S. glauca mt genome has 51 genes, including 26 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis with common genes of 28 species resulted in similar morphological classification. Conclusions As a Chenopodiaceae species, S. glauca mt genome will provide insights into the missing pieces in the evolution of sex determination and improve genomic breeding in the future.

2020 ◽  
Igor Filipović ◽  
James P. Hereward ◽  
Gordana Rašić ◽  
Gregor J. Devine ◽  
Michael J. Furlong ◽  

AbstractThe coconut rhinoceros beetle (CRB, Oryctes rhinoceros) is a severe and invasive pest of coconut and other palms throughout Asia and the Pacific. The biocontrol agent, Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV), has successfully suppressed O. rhinoceros populations for decades but new CRB invasions started appearing after 2007. A single-SNP variant within the mitochondrial cox1 gene is used to distinguish the recently-invading CRB-G lineage from other haplotypes, but the lack of mitogenome sequence for this species hinders further development of a molecular toolset for biosecurity and management programmes against CRB. Here we report the complete circular sequence and annotation for CRB mitogenome, generated to support such efforts.Sequencing data were generated using long-read Nanopore technology from genomic DNA isolated from a CRB-G female. The mitochondrial genome was assembled with Flye v.2.5, using the short-read Illumina sequences to remove homopolymers with Pilon, and annotated with MITOS. Independently-generated transcriptome data were used to assess the O. rhinoceros mitogenome annotation and transcription. The aligned sequences of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (with degenerate third codon position) from O. rhinoceros, 13 other Scarabaeidae taxa and two outgroup taxa were used for the phylogenetic reconstruction with the Maximum likelihood (ML) approach in IQ-TREE and Bayesian (BI) approach in MrBayes.The complete circular mitochondrial genome of O. rhinoceros is 20,898 bp-long, with a gene content canonical for insects (13 PCGs, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes), as well as one structural variation (rearrangement of trnQ and trnI) and a long control region (6,204 bp). Transcription was detected across all 37 genes, and interestingly, within three domains in the control region. ML and BI phylogenies had the same topology, correctly grouping O. rhinoceros with one other Dynastinae taxon, and recovering the previously reported relationship among lineages in the Scarabaeidae. In silico PCR-RFLP analysis recovered the correct fragment set that is diagnostic for the CRB-G haplogroup. These results validate the high-quality of the CRB mitogenome sequence and annotation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Dawei Liu ◽  
Yongwu Zhou ◽  
Yiling Fei ◽  
Chunping Xie ◽  
Senlin Hou

AbstractHistorically, the diving duck, Baer’s Pochard (Aythya baeri) was widely distributed in East and South Asia, but according to a recent estimate, its global population is now less than 1000 individuals. To date, the mitochondrial genome of A. baeri has not been deposited and is not available in GenBank. Therefore, we aimed to sequence the complete mitochondrial genome of this species. The genome was 16,623 bp in length, double stranded, circular in shape, and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one non-coding control region. Many structural and compositional similarities were discovered between A. baeri and the other three Aythya mitochondrial genomes. Among 13 protein-coding genes of the four Aythya species, the fastest-evolving gene was ATP8 while the slowest-evolving gene was COII. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree of Anatidae based on Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods showed that the relationships among 15 genera of the Anatidae family were as follows: Dendrocygna was an early diverging lineage that was fairly distant from the other ingroup taxa; Cygnus, Branta, and Anser were clustered into one branch that corresponded to the Anserinae subfamily; and Aythya, Asarcornis, Netta, Anas, Mareca, Mergus, Lophodytes, Bucephala, Tadorna, Cairina, and Aix were clustered into another branch that corresponded to the Anatinae subfamily. Our target species and three other Aythya species formed a monophyletic group. These results provide new mitogenomic information to support further phylogenetic and taxonomic studies and genetic conservation of Anatidae species.

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