Abstract. Sandy soils with fragipans are usually considered poorly suited for
agriculture. However, these soils are cultivated in Namibia as they can
secure a minimum harvest during droughts. In order to understand the
hydrological influence of fragipans in these soils, Ehenge, their soil moisture
content was measured for 4 months. These data were then compared to a
deep soil without fragipan, Omutunda, which is more productive during normal years
but less productive during droughts. The results illustrate that the combination of sandy topsoil and shallow
fragipan has beneficial effects on plant-available water during dry periods. Three reasons can be determined: (i) high infiltration rate in the sandy
topsoil, (ii) prevention of deep drainage by the fragipan, and (iii)
limitation of evaporation losses through the sand. Consequently,
transferring these findings to other dry, sandy areas with fragipans, with
respective consequences on farming practices, crop productivity, and food
security, should be possible.
Most of rural people even today depend on plants for medicines. The use of complentary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become increasingly popular worldwide, such that an estimated 38% of American adults reported using a form of CAM in 2006. The study of herbal remedies is common because many diseases and infections are known to have been treated with natural medicinal plants throughout the history of humanity. Ruta graveolens is aromatic shrub belong to family rutaceae and is commonly known as rue, cultivated as ornamental and medicinal herb in gardens. Due to its cultural and medicinal value, rue has been introduced in various countries of North, Central and South America, China, India, Middle East and South Africa. This plant also contains glucoside rutin. The flavonoids are a part of primary chemical components of Ruta graveolens Linn. The most important analyzed flavonoids are rutin (quercetin-3-β- rutinoside) that belongs to flavonol glycoside. Quercetin is other major flavonoids found in Ruta graveolens and can also be obtained by rutin hydrolysis.
Antibiotic residues in milk are a major health threat for the consumer and a hazard to the dairy industry, causing significant economic losses. This study aims to assess the presence of antibiotic residues in raw milk comparatively by a rapid screening test (BetaStar® Combo) and Liquid Chromatography coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 445 samples were collected from 3 dairy companies of north-central Algeria (Algiers, Blida, Boumerdes), and they were rapidly screened for β-lactams and tetracyclines; 52 samples, comprising 34 positive tanker-truck milk and 18 negative bulk-tank milk were tested by LC-MS/MS, which revealed 90.4% were contaminated (n = 47) and 55.3% exceeded the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL). The β-lactams as parent compounds and their metabolites were the most frequently detected with maximum value for cloxacillin (1231 µg/kg) and penicillin G (2062 µg/kg). Under field condition, the false-positive results, particularly for tetracyclines, seems to be related to milk samples displaying extreme acidity values (≥19°D) or fat-level fluctuations (2.7 g/100 mL and 5.6–6.2 g/100 mL). Despite a relatively low prevalence (7.64%) of residues using the rapid test, the detection by LC-MS/MS of flumequine (52 µg/kg), cefaclor (maximum 220 µg/kg) and metabolites of β-lactams at high levels should lead to reflections on the control of their human and environmental toxicological effects.