batch reactor
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2022 ◽  
Vol 305 ◽  
pp. 114393
Zineb Guellout ◽  
Emilie Francois-Lopez ◽  
Yacine Benguerba ◽  
Christine Dumas ◽  
Krishna Kumar Yadav ◽  

Brunno da Silva Cerozi ◽  
Josué Wenceslau de Oliveira Neto ◽  
Roger Abraão Ribeiro Cardeal Dias Leonel ◽  
Angélica Priscila do Carmo Alves

2022 ◽  
M Sukumar ◽  
M. Mathankumar ◽  
Chandra Sekhar Dash ◽  
M. Sundararajan ◽  
Mohd Ubaidullah ◽  

Abstract We report the synthesis of multiferroic BiFeO3 perovskite nanoparticles using the microwave combustion technique. Phase evolution is investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), which confirms that the formation of a secondary α-Bi2O3 phase with a monoclinic structure along with the existing rhombohedral (BiFeO3) structure. The average crystalline size has been found at 50 nm. The optical band gap was calculated from the Tauc’s plot it has been found 2.18 eV, as measured by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The appearances of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) absorption bands at 550 and 444 cm-1 were correlated to the rhombohedral stretching modes of bismuth ferrite nanostructure. The morphology observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the formation of nanosized grains with pores. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) was done to confirm the extent of Bi3+, Fe3+, and O2- in the samples. The magnetization-Field (M-H) hysteresis curves recorded from the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) revealed the appearance of ferrimagnetic behavior at room temperature. The specific surface area characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm is found 44.86 m2 g-1 using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique. The as-fabricated BiFeO3 perovskite nanoparticles were investigated for their superior catalytic activity in two applications, which include (i) the conversion of glycerol to formic acid in a selective liquid phase batch reactor at atmospheric pressure. This bismuth-based nanoparticles exhibit as an efficient multifunctional catalyst with high conversion and selectivity efficiency around 99.2% and 98.5%, respectively, (ii) the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation is found maximum efficiency (99.9%), when a small amount of H2O2 was added during photocatalysis, indicating the samples possessed photo-Fenton like catalytic activity. Finally, we concluded that the BiFeO3 perovskite nanoparticles' high performance in future multifunctional devices is demonstrated by the simultaneous enhancement of catalytic and photocatalytic activities.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 575
Mariola Saternus ◽  
Tomasz Merder

Obtaining high-quality aluminum is associated with the use of an effective method of refining, which is argon-purging, in which gas bubbles are introduced into the liquid metal by means of rotary impellers. Various rotary impellers are used in the industry; however, if a newly designed impeller is constructed, it should be tested prior to industrial use. For this purpose, physical modeling is used, which enables the investigation of the phenomena occurring during refining and the selection of optimal processing parameters without costly research carried out in the industry. The newly designed rotary impeller was tested on the physical model of a URO-200 batch reactor. The flow rate of refining gas was: 10, 15 and 20 dm3·min−1, whereas rotary impeller speed was 300, 400 and 500 rpm. The research consists of a visualization test showing the schemes of the gas bubbles’ dispersion level in the liquid metal and experiments for removing oxygen from water, which is an analogue of removing hydrogen from aluminum.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 37
Edoardo Dell’Armi ◽  
Marta Maria Rossi ◽  
Lucia Taverna ◽  
Marco Petrangeli Papini ◽  
Marco Zeppilli

Trichloroethylene (TCE) and more in general chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) can be removed from a contaminated matrix thanks to microorganisms able to perform the reductive dechlorination reaction (RD). Due to the lack of electron donors in the contaminated matrix, CAHs’ reductive dechlorination can be stimulated by fermentable organic substrates, which slowly release molecular hydrogen through their fermentation. In this paper, three different electron donors constituted by lactate, hydrogen, and a biocathode of a bioelectrochemical cell have been studied in TCE dechlorination batch experiments. The batch reactors evaluated in terms of reductive dechlorination rate and utilization efficiency of the electron donor reported that the bio-electrochemical system (BES) showed a lower RD rate with respect of lactate reactor (51 ± 9 µeq/d compared to 98 ± 4 µeq/d), while the direct utilization of molecular hydrogen gave a significantly lower RD rate (19 ± 8 µeq/d), due to hydrogen low solubility in liquid media. The study also gives a comparative evaluation of the different electron donors showing the capability of the bioelectrochemical system to reach comparable efficiencies with a fermentable substrate without the use of other chemicals, 10.7 ± 3.3% for BES with respect of 3.5 ± 0.2% for the lactate-fed batch reactor. This study shows the BES capability of being an alternative at classic remediation approaches.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 223
Erlon Lopes Pereira ◽  
Alisson Carraro Borges ◽  
Greicelene Jesus da Silva

The wastewater from the biodiesel industry is an environmental problem, and from a sanitation resources perspective, the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) is an interesting alternative for wastewater treatment. A better understanding of ASBR operation behavior under the progressive increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) is crucial for upscaling. The objective of this study was to monitor an ASBR operating with an OLR ranging from 1.3 to 9.3 kgCOD m−3 d−1. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of the ASBR were 52, 41, 47, and 11% for phases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The apparent kinetic coefficient, i.e., the rate of degradation of organic matter, was between 0.10 and 1.80 h−1, considering the kinetic model that considers the residual substrate concentration, which was the one that best fit the obtained data. The progressive increase in applied OLR modified the microbial biomass diversity, which in turn influenced the degradation kinetics of the organic matter. In addition, the values of the applied OLR of 5.1 kgCOD m−3 d−1 and a food to microorganism ratio (F/M) of 0.6 kgCOD kgVSS−1 d−1 were shown to be limiting values that promoted the overload of ASBR.

Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 72
Giuseppina Luciani ◽  
Giovanna Ruoppolo ◽  
Gianluca Landi ◽  
Valentina Gargiulo ◽  
Michela Alfè ◽  

Glycerol is the main by-product of biodiesel production; its upgrading to more valuable products is a demanding issue. Hydrogenolysis to 1,2-propanediol is one of the most interesting processes among the possible upgrading routes. In this study, we propose novel copper/zirconia catalysts prepared by advanced preparation methods, including copper deposition via metal–organic framework (MOF) and support preparation via the sol–gel route. The catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, H2-TPR and NH3-TPD analyses and tested in a commercial batch reactor. The catalyst prepared by copper deposition via MOF decomposition onto commercial zirconia showed the best catalytic performance, reaching 75% yield. The improved catalytic performance was assigned to a proper combination of redox and acid properties. In particular, a non-negligible fraction of cuprous oxide and of weak acid sites seems fundamental to preferentially activate the selective pathway. In particular, these features avoid the overhydrogenolysis of 1,2-propanediol to 1-propanol and enhance glycerol dehydration to hydroxyacetone and the successive hydrogenation of hydroxyacetone to 1,2-propanediol.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 2
Morgane Briand ◽  
Geert Haarlemmer ◽  
Anne Roubaud ◽  
Pascal Fongarland

Hydrothermal liquefaction has proven itself as a promising pathway to the valorisation of low-value wet food residues. The chemistry is complex and many questions remain about the underlying mechanism of the transformation. Little is known about the heat of reaction, or even the thermal effects, of the hydrothermal liquefaction of real biomass and its constituents. This paper explores different methods to evaluate the heat released during the liquefaction of blackcurrant pomace and brewers’ spent grains. Some model compounds have also been evaluated, such as lignin, cellulose and glutamic acid. Exothermic behaviour was observed for blackcurrant pomace and brewers’ spent grains. Results obtained in a continuous reactor are similar to those obtained in a batch reactor. The heat release has been estimated between 1 MJ/kg and 3 MJ/kg for blackcurrant pomace and brewers’ spent grains, respectively. Liquefaction of cellulose and glucose also exhibit exothermic behaviour, while the transformation of lignin and glutamic acid present a slightly endothermic behaviour.

Eduardo G. R. Taques Filho ◽  
Evandro L. Dall’Oglio ◽  
Paulo T. de Sousa ◽  
Fabilene Ribeiro ◽  
Matheus Zimermann Marques ◽  

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