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Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 38
Author(s):  
Hae-Sung Yang ◽  
Kyeong-Min Kim ◽  
Napissara Boonpraman ◽  
Sun-Mi Yoon ◽  
Jeong-Eun Seo ◽  
...  

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a growing demand for effective and safe disinfectants. A novel use of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas, which can satisfy such demand, has been reported. However, its efficacy and safety remain unclear. For the safe use of this gas, the stable release of specific concentrations is a must. A new type of ClO2 generator called Dr.CLOTM has recently been introduced. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the effects of Dr.CLOTM on inhibiting adenoviral amplification on human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells; and (2) the acute inhalation safety of using Dr.CLOTM in animal models. After infecting HBE cells with a recombinant adenovirus, the inhibitory power of Dr.CLOTM on the virus was expressed as IFU/mL in comparison with the control group. The safety of ClO2 gas was indirectly predicted using mice by measuring single-dose inhalation toxicity in specially designed chambers. Dr.CLOTM was found to evaporate in a very constant concentration range at 0–0.011 ppm/m3 for 42 days. In addition, 36–100% of adenoviral amplification was suppressed by Dr.CLOTM, depending on the conditions. The LC50 of ClO2 gas to mice was approximately 68 ppm for males and 141 ppm for females. Histopathological evaluation showed that the lungs of female mice were more resistant to the toxicity from higher ClO2 gas concentrations than those of male mice. Taken together, these results indicate that Dr.CLOTM can be used to provide a safe indoor environment due to its technology that maintains the stable concentration and release of ClO2 gas, which could suppress viral amplification and may prevent viral infections.


Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 37
Author(s):  
Edoardo Dell’Armi ◽  
Marta Maria Rossi ◽  
Lucia Taverna ◽  
Marco Petrangeli Papini ◽  
Marco Zeppilli

Trichloroethylene (TCE) and more in general chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) can be removed from a contaminated matrix thanks to microorganisms able to perform the reductive dechlorination reaction (RD). Due to the lack of electron donors in the contaminated matrix, CAHs’ reductive dechlorination can be stimulated by fermentable organic substrates, which slowly release molecular hydrogen through their fermentation. In this paper, three different electron donors constituted by lactate, hydrogen, and a biocathode of a bioelectrochemical cell have been studied in TCE dechlorination batch experiments. The batch reactors evaluated in terms of reductive dechlorination rate and utilization efficiency of the electron donor reported that the bio-electrochemical system (BES) showed a lower RD rate with respect of lactate reactor (51 ± 9 µeq/d compared to 98 ± 4 µeq/d), while the direct utilization of molecular hydrogen gave a significantly lower RD rate (19 ± 8 µeq/d), due to hydrogen low solubility in liquid media. The study also gives a comparative evaluation of the different electron donors showing the capability of the bioelectrochemical system to reach comparable efficiencies with a fermentable substrate without the use of other chemicals, 10.7 ± 3.3% for BES with respect of 3.5 ± 0.2% for the lactate-fed batch reactor. This study shows the BES capability of being an alternative at classic remediation approaches.


Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 35
Author(s):  
Hugo Pérez ◽  
Gregorio Vargas ◽  
Rodolfo Silva

In humid environments, the formation of biofilms and microfouling are known to be the detrimental processes that first occur on stainless steel surfaces. This is known as biofouling. Subsequently, the conditions created by metabolites and the activity of organisms trigger corrosion of the metal and accelerate corrosion locally, causing a deterioration in, and alterations to, the performance of devices made of stainless steel. The microorganisms which thus affect stainless steel are mainly algae and bacteria. Within the macroorganisms that then damage the steel, mollusks and crustaceans are the most commonly observed. The aim of this review was to identify the mechanisms involved in biofouling on stainless steel and to evaluate the research done on preventing or mitigating this problem using nanotechnology in humid environments in three areas of human activity: food manufacturing, the implantation of medical devices, and infrastructure in marine settings. Of these protective processes that modify the steel surfaces, three approaches were examined: the use of inorganic nanoparticles; the use of polymeric coatings; and, finally, the generation of nanotextures.


Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
Author(s):  
Ilektra Sperdouli ◽  
Ioannis-Dimosthenis S. Adamakis ◽  
Anelia Dobrikova ◽  
Emilia Apostolova ◽  
Anetta Hanć ◽  
...  

Salvia sclarea L. is a Cd2+ tolerant medicinal herb with antifungal and antimicrobial properties cultivated for its pharmacological properties. However, accumulation of high Cd2+ content in its tissues increases the adverse health effects of Cd2+ in humans. Therefore, there is a serious demand to lower human Cd2+ intake. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the mitigative role of excess Zn2+ supply to Cd2+ uptake/translocation and toxicity in clary sage. Salvia plants were treated with excess Cd2+ (100 μM CdSO4) alone, and in combination with Zn2+ (900 μM ZnSO4), in modified Hoagland nutrient solution. The results demonstrate that S. sclarea plants exposed to Cd2+ toxicity accumulated a significant amount of Cd2+ in their tissues, with higher concentrations in roots than in leaves. Cadmium exposure enhanced total Zn2+ uptake but also decreased its translocation to leaves. The accumulated Cd2+ led to a substantial decrease in photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and disrupted the chloroplast ultrastructure, which coincided with an increased lipid peroxidation. Zinc application decreased Cd2+ uptake and translocation to leaves, while it mitigated oxidative stress, restoring chloroplast ultrastructure. Excess Zn2+ ameliorated the adverse effects of Cd2+ on PSII photochemistry, increasing the fraction of energy used for photochemistry (ΦPSII) and restoring PSII redox state and maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm), while decreasing excess excitation energy at PSII (EXC). We conclude that excess Zn2+ application eliminated the adverse effects of Cd2+ toxicity, reducing Cd2+ uptake and translocation and restoring chloroplast ultrastructure and PSII photochemical efficiency. Thus, excess Zn2+ application can be used as an important method for low Cd2+-accumulating crops, limiting Cd2+ entry into the food chain.


Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Author(s):  
Zhiwei Bao ◽  
Weitao Wang ◽  
Xiaofang Wang ◽  
Mingrong Qian ◽  
Yuanxiang Jin

Difenoconazole (DIF) is a widely separated triazole fungicide in many countries. The excessive usage of DIF increases the high volume of residues in agriculture production and water bodies. Some previous studies demonstrated the toxic effects of DIF on non-target animals, however, there were still some gaps in the knowledge of the potential hazards of DIF to mammals and human health. Herein, 7-week-old male mice were exposed to 30 and 100 mg/kg/day DIF for 14 and 56 days. We observed that 56 days of DIF exposure decreased the colonic mucus expression of alcin blue-periodic acid-schiff (AB-PAS) stain and the immunochemical stain of muc2 protein. The transcript levels of mucin protein (muc1, muc2 and muc3) decreased significantly in the gut of mice followed 56 days of 100 mg/kg/day DIF exposure. In addition, the gut microbiota composition was also affected after 14 or 56 days of DIF exposure. Although the mucus expression after 14 days of DIF exposure only decreased slightly, the gut microbiota composition compared with the control group was changed significantly. Moreover, the DIF-30 and DIF-100 caused respectively different changes on the gut microbiota. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes decreased significantly after 14 days and 56 days of DIF exposure. After 14 days of DIF exposure, there were 35 and 18 differential genera in the DIF-30 and DIF-100 group, respectively. There were 25 and 32 differential genera in the DIF-30 and DIF-100 group after 56 days of exposure, respectively. Meanwhile, the alpha diversity indexes, including observed species, Shannon, Simpson, Chao1 and ACE, in gut microbiota decreased significantly after 56 days of DIF exposure. Interestingly, the relative abundance of Akkermansia increased significantly after 56 days of 100 mg/kg/d DIF exposure. Although Akkermansia was considered as one probiotic, the phenomenon of dramatic Akkermansia increase with the decrease in gut microbiota diversity needed further discussion. These results provided some new insights on how DIF exposure impacts the mucus barrier and induces gut microbiota dysbiosis.


Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 30
Author(s):  
Ross Gillette ◽  
Michelle Dias ◽  
Michael P. Reilly ◽  
Lindsay M. Thompson ◽  
Norma J. Castillo ◽  
...  

All individuals are directly exposed to extant environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and indirectly exposed through transgenerational inheritance from our ancestors. Although direct and ancestral exposures can each lead to deficits in behaviors, their interactions are not known. Here we focused on social behaviors based on evidence of their vulnerability to direct or ancestral exposures, together with their importance in reproduction and survival of a species. Using a novel “two hits, three generations apart” experimental rat model, we investigated interactions of two classes of EDCs across six generations. PCBs (a weakly estrogenic mixture Aroclor 1221, 1 mg/kg), Vinclozolin (antiandrogenic, 1 mg/kg) or vehicle (6% DMSO in sesame oil) were administered to pregnant rat dams (F0) to directly expose the F1 generation, with subsequent breeding through paternal or maternal lines. A second EDC hit was given to F3 dams, thereby exposing the F4 generation, with breeding through the F6 generation. Approximately 1200 male and female rats from F1, F3, F4 and F6 generations were run through tests of sociability and social novelty as indices of social preference. We leveraged machine learning using DeepLabCut to analyze nuanced social behaviors such as nose touching with accuracy similar to a human scorer. Surprisingly, social behaviors were affected in ancestrally exposed but not directly exposed individuals, particularly females from a paternally exposed breeding lineage. Effects varied by EDC: Vinclozolin affected aspects of behavior in the F3 generation while PCBs affected both the F3 and F6 generations. Taken together, our data suggest that specific aspects of behavior are particularly vulnerable to heritable ancestral exposure of EDC contamination, that there are sex differences, and that lineage is a key factor in transgenerational outcomes.


Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Author(s):  
Maria Luisa Fernandez-Marcos

The presence of toxic substances is one of the major causes of degradation of soil quality. Wildfires, besides affecting various chemical, physical, and biological soil properties, produce a mixture of potentially toxic substances which can reach the soil and water bodies and cause harm to these media. This review intends to summarise the current knowledge on the generation by wildfires of potentially toxic substances, their effects on soil organisms, and other associated risks, addressing the effects of fire on metal mobilisation, the pyrolytic production of potentially toxic compounds, and the detoxifying effect of charcoal. Numerous studies ascertained inhibitory effects of ash on seed germination and seedling growth as well as its toxicity to soil and aquatic organisms. Abundant publications addressed the mobilisation of heavy metals and trace elements by fire, including analyses of total concentrations, speciation, availability, and risk of exportation to water bodies. Many publications studied the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other organic pollutants in soils after fire, their composition, decline over time, the risk of contamination of surface and ground waters, and their toxicity to plants, soil, and water organisms. Finally, the review addresses the possible detoxifying role of charcoal in soils affected by fire.


Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 33
Author(s):  
Baptiste Languille ◽  
Valérie Gros ◽  
Bonnaire Nicolas ◽  
Cécile Honoré ◽  
Anne Kaufmann ◽  
...  

Portable sensors have emerged as a promising solution for personal exposure (PE) measurement. For the first time in Île-de-France, PE to black carbon (BC), particulate matter (PM), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was quantified based on three field campaigns involving 37 volunteers from the general public wearing the sensors all day long for a week. This successful deployment demonstrated its ability to quantify PE on a large scale, in various environments (from dense urban to suburban, indoor and outdoor) and in all seasons. The impact of the visited environments was investigated. The proximity to road traffic (for BC and NO2), as well as cooking activities and tobacco smoke (for PM), made significant contributions to total exposure (up to 34%, 26%, and 44%, respectively), even though the time spent in these environments was short. Finally, even if ambient outdoor levels played a role in PE, the prominent impact of the different environments suggests that traditional ambient monitoring stations is not a proper surrogate for PE quantification.


Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 32
Author(s):  
Qianqian Xue ◽  
Yingze Tian ◽  
Xinyi Liu ◽  
Xiaojun Wang ◽  
Bo Huang ◽  
...  

Ambient PM2.5-bound ions, OC, EC, heavy metals (HMs), 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 7 hopanes, and 29 n-alkanes were detected at Tuoji Island (TI), the only marine background atmospheric monitoring station in North China. The annual PM2.5 average concentration was 47 ± 31 μg m−3, and the average concentrations of the compositions in PM2.5 were higher in cold seasons than in warm seasons. The cancer and non-cancer risks of HMs and PAHs in cold seasons were also higher than in warm seasons. BaP, Ni, and As dominated the ∑HQ (hazard quotient) in cold seasons, while the non-carcinogenic risk in warm seasons was mainly dominated by Ni, Mn, and As. The ILCR (incremental lifetime cancer risk) values associated with Cr and As were higher in the cold season, while ILCR-Ni values were higher in the warm season. The backward trajectory was calculated to identify the potential directions of air mass at TI. Through the diagnostic ratios of organic and inorganic tracers, the sources of particulate matter in different directions were judged. It was found that ship emissions and sea salt were the main sources from marine directions, while coal combustion, vehicles emissions, industrial process, and secondary aerosols were the main source categories for inland directions. In addition, potential HM and PAH risks from inland and marine directions were explored. The non-cancerous effects of TI were mainly affected by inland transport, especially from the southeast, northwest, and west-northwest. The cancerous effects of TI were mainly simultaneously affected by the inland direction and marine direction of transport.


Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 29
Author(s):  
Thet Aung ◽  
Inayat Batish ◽  
Reza Ovissipour

This study aimed to determine the microplastic prevalence in eastern oysters (C. virginica) in three sites in the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia and optimize the digestion methods. The digestion results illustrate that the lowest recovery rate and digestion recovery were related to enzymatic, enzymatic + hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and HCl 5% treatments, while the highest digestion recovery and recovery rate were observed in H2O2 and basic (KOH) treatments. Nitric acid digestion resulted in satisfying digestion recovery (100%), while no blue polyethylene microplastics were observed due to the poor recovery rate. In addition, nitric acid altered the color, changed the Raman spectrum intensity, and melted polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In order to determine the number of microplastics, 144 oysters with an approximately similar size and weight from three sites, including the James River, York River, and Eastern Shore, were evaluated. Fragments were the most abundant microplastics among the different microplastics, followed by fibers and beads, in the three sites. A significantly higher number of fragments were found in the James River, probably due to the greater amount of human activities. The number of microplastics per gram of oyster tissue was higher in the James River, with 7 MPs/g tissue, than in the York River and Eastern Shore, with 6.7 and 5.6 MPs/g tissue.


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