Recently Published Documents
Liquid Metal-Based Epidermal Flexible Sensor for Wireless Breath Monitoring and Diagnosis Enabled by Highly Sensitive SnS2 Nanosheets
Real-time wireless respiratory monitoring and biomarker analysis provide an attractive vision for noninvasive telemedicine such as the timely prevention of respiratory arrest or for early diagnoses of chronic diseases. Lightweight, wearable respiratory sensors are in high demand as they meet the requirement of portability in digital healthcare management. Meanwhile, high-performance sensing material plays a crucial role for the precise sensing of specific markers in exhaled air, which represents a complex and rather humid environment. Here, we present a liquid metal-based flexible electrode coupled with SnS2 nanomaterials as a wearable gas-sensing device, with added Bluetooth capabilities for remote respiratory monitoring and diagnoses. The flexible epidermal device exhibits superior skin compatibility and high responsiveness (1092%/ppm), ultralow detection limits (1.32 ppb), and a good selectivity of NO gas at ppb-level concentrations. Taking advantage of the fast recovery kinetics of SnS2 responding to H2O molecules, it is possible to accurately distinguish between different respiratory patterns based on the amount of water vapor in the exhaled air. Furthermore, based on the different redox types of H2O and NO molecules, the electric signal is reversed once the exhaled NO concentration exceeds a certain threshold that may indicate the onset of conditions like asthma, thus providing an early warning system for potential lung diseases. Finally, by integrating the wearable device into a wireless cloud-based multichannel interface, we provide a proof-of-concept that our device could be used for the simultaneous remote monitoring of several patients with respiratory diseases, a crucial field in future digital healthcare management.
Preliminary development and validation of ACENA code for heavy liquid metal-gas two phase flow simulation
In this paper, a gravity-triggered liquid metal microstrip patch antenna with reconfigurable frequency is proposed with experimental verification. In this work, the substrate of the antenna is quickly obtained through three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. Non-toxic EGaIn alloy is filled into the resin substrate as a radiation patch, and the NaOH solution is used to remove the oxide film of EGaIn. In this configuration, the liquid metal inside the antenna can be flexibly flowed and deformed with different rotation angles due to the gravity to realize different working states. To validate the conception, the reflection coefficients and radiation patterns of the prototyped antenna are then measured, from which it can be observed that the measured results closely follow the simulations. The antenna can obtain a wide operating bandwidth of 3.69–4.95 GHz, which coverage over a range of frequencies suitable for various channels of the 5th generation (5G) mobile networks. The principle of gravitational driving can be applied to the design of reconfigurable antennas for other types of liquid metals.
A Soft Resistive Sensor with a Semicircular Cross-Sectional Channel for Soft Cardiac Catheter Ablation
The field of soft robotics has attracted the interest of the medical community due to the ability of soft elastic materials to traverse the abnormal environment of the human body. However, sensing in soft robotics has been challenging due to the sensitivity of soft sensors to various loading conditions and the nonlinear signal responses that can arise under extreme loads. Ideally, soft sensors should provide a linear response under a specific loading condition and provide a different response for other loading directions. With these specifications in mind, our team created a soft elastomeric sensor designed to provide force feedback during cardiac catheter ablation surgery. Analytical and computational methods were explored to define a relationship between resistance and applied force for a semicircular, liquid metal filled channel in the soft elastomeric sensor. Pouillet’s Law is utilized to calculate the resistance based on the change in cross-sectional area resulting from various applied pressures. FEA simulations were created to simulate the deformation of the sensor under various loads. To confirm the validity of these simulations, the elastomer was modeled as a neo-Hookean material and the liquid metal was modeled as an incompressible fluid with negligible shear modulus under uniaxial compression. Results show a linearly proportional relationship between the resistance of the sensor and the application of a uniaxial force. Altering the direction of applied force results in a quadratic relationship between total resistance and the magnitude of force.
Solidified Liquid Metal with Regulated Plasticity for Channel-Free Construction of 3D Structured Flexible Electronics
Abstract Gallium alloy based liquid metals (LMs) have shown great promise for soft and stretchable electronics in virtue of intrinsic fluidity and metallic conductivity. However, it has been a challenge by using LM to construct 3D structured circuits which are crucial for building flexible electronics with high integration. Hereby, taking advantage of the solid-liquid phase transition and plastic deformation of a Ga-10In LM alloy, we propose a novel strategy to fabricate LM based flexible electronic devices, in particular comprised of 3D circuits, without the need to pre-fabricate microchannels. We demonstrate applications including 3D interconnect arches for the integration of a multi-channel LED array, a 3D structured wearable sensor and a multilayer flexible circuit board for monitoring of finger movement. The current work provides a facile strategy for constructing LM based flexible electronics, which is of particular interest for building highly integrated electronics of hierarchical structure involving complicated 3D circuits.
AbstractSoft electronics and robotics are in increasing demand for diverse applications. However, soft devices typically lack rigid enclosures which can increase their susceptibility to damage and lead to failure and premature disposal. This creates a need for soft and stretchable functional materials with resilient and regenerative properties. Here we show a liquid metal-elastomer-plasticizer composite for soft electronics with robust circuitry that is self-healing, reconfigurable, and ultimately recyclable. This is achieved through an embossing technique for on-demand formation of conductive liquid metal networks which can be reprocessed to rewire or completely recycle the soft electronic composite. These skin-like electronics stretch to 1200% strain with minimal change in electrical resistance, sustain numerous damage events under load without losing electrical conductivity, and are recycled to generate new devices at the end of life. These soft composites with adaptive liquid metal microstructures can find broad use for soft electronics and robotics with improved lifetime and recyclability.
Motivated by the significant natural circulation capability of lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE)–cooled systems, the RELAP5 MOD3.2 code was modified for the analysis of LBE-cooled reactors and non-nuclear systems. The thermo-physical properties of LBE have been incorporated into the code without affecting the code’s original performance; new heat transfer correlations for liquid metal have been implemented. For the purpose of validating the modified code, experimental results of two different LBE natural circulation test loops were compared with the code simulation results. The first one was a natural circulation setup process test at a power of 22.5 kW performed at the Natural Circulation Experimental (NACIE) facility. The simulated inlet and outlet LBE temperatures across the heat source and mass flow rate of LBE agreed well with the test data. The second one was natural circulation conditions under five different power levels conducted at the Natural Circulation Capability Loop (NCCL) facility. The LBE temperature difference and mass flow rate under different power levels predicted by the code were consistent with the experimental data. Generally speaking, the modified code gives acceptable results, and the code could be applied for further LBE systems thermal-hydraulic analysis.