Although numerous recent studies have shown the importance of polymeric microfibrous extracellular matrices (ECMs) in maintaining cell behaviors and functions, the mechanistic nexus between ECMs and intracellular activities is largely unknown. Nevertheless, this knowledge will be critical in understanding and treating diseases with ECM remodeling. Therefore, we present our findings that ECM microstructures could regulate intracellular amino acid levels in liver cells mechanistically through integrin β1. Amino acids were studied because they are the fundamental blocks for protein synthesis and metabolism, two vital functions of liver cells. Two ECM conditions, flat and microfibrous, were prepared and studied. In addition to characterizing cell growth, albumin production, urea synthesis, and cytochrome p450 activity, we found that the microfibrous ECM generally upregulated the intracellular amino acid levels. Further explorations showed that cells on the flat substrate expressed more integrin β1 than cells on the microfibers. Moreover, after partially blocking integrin β1 in cells on the flat substrate, the intracellular amino acid levels were restored, strongly supporting integrin β1 as the linking mechanism. This is the first study to report that a non-biological polymer matrix could regulate intracellular amino acid patterns through integrin. The results will help with future therapy development for liver diseases with ECM changes (e.g., fibrosis).
Cyanobacteria must prevent imbalances between absorbed light energy (source) and the metabolic capacity (sink) to utilize it to protect their photosynthetic apparatus against damage. A number of photoprotective mechanisms assist in dissipating excess absorbed energy, including respiratory terminal oxidases and flavodiiron proteins, but inherently reduce photosynthetic efficiency. Recently, it has been hypothesized that some engineered metabolic pathways may improve photosynthetic performance by correcting source/sink imbalances. In the context of this subject, we explored the interconnectivity between endogenous electron valves, and the activation of one or more heterologous metabolic sinks. We coexpressed two heterologous metabolic pathways that have been previously shown to positively impact photosynthetic activity in cyanobacteria, a sucrose production pathway (consuming ATP and reductant) and a reductant-only consuming cytochrome P450. Sucrose export was associated with improved quantum yield of phtotosystem II (PSII) and enhanced electron transport chain flux, especially at lower illumination levels, while cytochrome P450 activity led to photosynthetic enhancements primarily observed under high light. Moreover, coexpression of these two heterologous sinks showed additive impacts on photosynthesis, indicating that neither sink alone was capable of utilizing the full “overcapacity” of the electron transport chain. We find that heterologous sinks may partially compensate for the loss of photosystem I (PSI) oxidizing mechanisms even under rapid illumination changes, although this compensation is incomplete. Our results provide support for the theory that heterologous metabolism can act as a photosynthetic sink and exhibit some overlapping functionality with photoprotective mechanisms, while potentially conserving energy within useful metabolic products that might otherwise be “lost.”
Phlorotannins are polyphenols occurring exclusively in some species of brown algae, known for numerous biological activities, e.g., antioxidant, antiproliferative, antidiabetic, and antiallergic properties. Their effects on the response of human lung cells to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) has not been characterized. Our objective was to in vitro evaluate the effects of a phlorotannin-rich extract obtained from the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus on B[a]P cytotoxic effects. The A549 cell line was incubated with B[a]P for 48 and 72 h in the presence or absence of the brown algae extract. Cytochrome P450 activity, activation of P2X7 receptor, F-actin disorganization, and loss of E-cadherin expression were assessed using microplate cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Relative to control, incubation with the brown algae extract was associated with lower B[a]P-induced CYP1 activity, lower P2X7 receptor activation, and lower reactive oxygen species production. The brown algae extract inhibited the alterations of F-actin arrangement and the downregulation of E-cadherin expression. We identified a phlorotannins-rich extract that could be deeper investigated as a cancer chemopreventive agent to block B[a]P-mediated carcinogenesis.
Decellularized extracellular matrix-based bio-inks (dECM bio-inks) for bioprinting technology have recently gained attention owing to their excellent ability to confer tissue-specific functions and 3D-printing capability. Although decellularization has led to a major advancement in bio-ink development, the effects of detergent type, the most important factor in decellularization, are still unclear. In this study, the effects of various detergent types on bio-ink performance were investigated. Porcine liver-derived dECM bio-inks prepared using widely used detergents, including sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium deoxycholate (SDC), Triton X-100 (TX), and TX with ammonium hydroxide (TXA), were characterized in detail. SDS and SDC severely damaged glycosaminoglycan and elastin proteins, TX showed the lowest rate of decellularization, and TXA-based dECM bio-ink possessed the highest ECM content among all bio-inks. Differences in biochemical composition directly affected bio-ink performance, with TXA-dECM bio-ink showing the best performance with respect to gelation kinetics, intermolecular bonding, mechanical properties, and 2D/3D printability. More importantly, cytocompatibility tests using primary mouse hepatocytes also showed that the TXA-dECM bio-ink improved albumin secretion and cytochrome P450 activity by approximately 2.12- and 1.67-fold, respectively, compared with the observed values for other bio-inks. Our results indicate that the detergent type has a great influence on dECM damage and that the higher the dECM content, the better the performance of the bio-ink for 3D bioprinting.
ABSTRACT Herbicide interactions can be synergic, additive, or antagonist when mixed in the spray tank. A good example is an association between 2,4-D and graminicides. One hypothesis is that 2,4-D contributes to increasing the Cytochrome P450 activity, which may be one of the causes of antagonism. This study aimed to investigate the use of CYP450 enzymes inhibitor associated with the herbicide mixtures 2,4-D and ACCase inhibitors in vivo on the control of Digitaria insularis. The experiment was performed using a randomized block design in a factorial scheme of 6x2 with four replications. Factor A consisted of untreated check, 2,4-D (1005 g a.e ha-1), clethodim (192 g a.i ha-1) and haloxyfop (62.4 g a.i ha-1), 2,4-D + clethodim (1005 g a.e ha-1+192 g a.i ha-1), and 2,4-D + haloxyfop (1005 g a.e ha-1 +62.4 g a.i ha-1). Factor B represented the presence or absence of malathion (1000 g ha-1) applied two hours before applying the herbicides. A physicochemical test was performed to verify the compatibility of the herbicides in the tank. Malathion application performed two hours before applying the herbicide mixtures (2,4-D and clethodim/haloxyfop) did not provide adequate control of sourgrass, suggesting that CYP450 enzymes inhibited by malathion are not involved in the antagonistic effect between 2,4-D and both graminicides in the management of sourgrass. The 2,4-D + haloxyfop in tank mix demonstrated less efficacy in controlling sourgrass than 2,4-D + clethodim, but both mixtures were incompatible in the tank mix, which may be associated with reduced efficacy in sourgrass management.