receptor activation
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Leiye Yu ◽  
Licong He ◽  
Bing Gan ◽  
Rujuan Ti ◽  
Qingjie Xiao ◽  
...  

As a critical sphingolipid metabolite, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays an essential role in immune and vascular systems. There are five S1P receptors, designated as S1PR1-5, encoded in the human genome, and their activities are governed by endogenous S1P, lipid-like S1P mimics, or non-lipid-like therapeutic molecules. Among S1PRs, S1PR1 stands out due to its non-redundant functions, such as the egress of T and B cells from the thymus and secondary lymphoid tissues, making it a potential therapeutic target. However, the structural basis of S1PR1 activation and regulation by various agonists remains unclear. Here we reported four atomic resolution cryo-EM structures of Gi-coupled human S1PR1 complexes: bound to endogenous agonist d18:1 S1P, benchmark lipid-like S1P mimic phosphorylated Fingolimod ((S)-FTY720-P), or non-lipid-like therapeutic molecule CBP-307 in two binding modes. Our results revealed the similarities and differences of activation of S1PR1 through distinct ligands binding to the amphiphilic orthosteric pocket. We also proposed a two-step "shallow to deep" transition process of CBP-307 for S1PR1 activation. Both binding modes of CBP-307 could activate S1PR1, but from shallow to deep transition may trigger the rotation of the N-terminal helix of Gαi and further stabilize the complex by increasing the Gαi interaction with the cell membrane. We combine with extensive biochemical analysis and molecular dynamic simulations to suggest key steps of S1P binding and receptor activation. The above results decipher the common feature of the S1PR1 agonist recognition and activation mechanism and will firmly promote the development of therapeutics targeting S1P receptors.


Bioengineered ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 2346-2359
Author(s):  
Wei Wei ◽  
Zhentao Sun ◽  
Shifeng He ◽  
Wanyue Zhang ◽  
Sai Chen ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ian Winfield ◽  
Kerry Barkan ◽  
Sarah Routledge ◽  
Nathan J. Robertson ◽  
Matthew Harris ◽  
...  

The first intracellular loop (ICL1) of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has received little attention, although there is evidence that, with the 8th helix (H8), it is involved in early conformational changes following receptor activation as well as contacting the G protein β subunit. In class B1 GPCRs, the distal part of ICL1 contains a conserved R12.48KLRCxR2.46b motif that extends into the base of the second transmembrane helix; this is weakly conserved as a [R/H]12.48KL[R/H] motif in class A GPCRs. In the current study, the role of ICL1 and H8 in signaling through cAMP, iCa2+ and ERK1/2 has been examined in two class B1 GPCRs, using mutagenesis and molecular dynamics. Mutations throughout ICL1 can either enhance or disrupt cAMP production by CGRP at the CGRP receptor. Alanine mutagenesis identified subtle differences with regard elevation of iCa2+, with the distal end of the loop being particularly sensitive. ERK1/2 activation displayed little sensitivity to ICL1 mutation. A broadly similar pattern was observed with the glucagon receptor, although there were differences in significance of individual residues. Extending the study revealed that at the CRF1 receptor, an insertion in ICL1 switched signaling bias between iCa2+ and cAMP. Molecular dynamics suggested that changes in ICL1 altered the conformation of ICL2 and the H8/TM7 junction (ICL4). For H8, alanine mutagenesis showed the importance of E3908.49b for all three signal transduction pathways, for the CGRP receptor, but mutations of other residues largely just altered ERK1/2 activation. Thus, ICL1 may modulate GPCR bias via interactions with ICL2, ICL4 and the Gβ subunit.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tanyaporn Pattarabanjird ◽  
Jeffrey M. Wilson ◽  
Loren D. Erickson ◽  
Lisa J. Workman ◽  
Hui Qiao ◽  
...  

Background: Recent studies have suggested that IgE sensitization to α-gal is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the B cell subtype(s) responsible for production of IgE to α-gal and mechanisms mediating this production remain elusive.Methods: Single cell multi-omics sequencing, was utilized to phenotype B cells obtained from 60 subjects that had undergone coronary angiography in whom serum IgE was evaluated by ImmunoCAP. Bioinformatics approaches were used to identify B cell subtype(s) and transcriptomic signatures associated with α-gal sensitization. In vitro characterization of chemokine/chemokine receptor pairs on switched memory B cells associated with IgE to α-gal was performed.Results: Of the 60 patients, 17 (28%) were positive for IgE to α-gal. CITESeq identified CCR6+ class-switched memory (SWM) B cells and CXCR4 expresssion on these CCR6+ SWM B cells as significantly associated with IgE sensitization to α-gal but not to other common allergens (peanut or inhalants). In vitro studies of enriched human B cells revealed significantly greater IgE on SWM B cells with high CCR6 and CXCR4 expression 10 days after cells were treated with IL-4 and CD40 to stimulate class switch recombination. Both CCL20 (CCR6 ligand) and CXCL12 (ligand for CXCR4) increased the expression of IgE on SWM B cells expressing their receptors. However, they appeared to have unique pathways mediating this effect as only CCL20 increased activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), while CXCL12 drove proliferation of CXCR4+ SWM B cells. Lastly, correlation analysis indicated an association between CAD severity and the frequency of both CCR6+ SWM and CXCR4+ SWM B cells.Conclusions: CCR6+ SWM B cells were identified as potential producers of IgE to α-gal in CAD patients. Additionally, our findings highlighted non-chemotaxis roles of CCL20/CCR6 and CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling in mediating IgE class switching and cell proliferation of SWM B cells respectively. Results may have important implications for a better understanding and better therapeutic approaches for subjects with IgE sensitization to α-gal.


Gut ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. gutjnl-2021-325272
Author(s):  
Gaia Bellomo ◽  
Carolyn Rainer ◽  
Valeria Quaranta ◽  
Yuliana Astuti ◽  
Meirion Raymant ◽  
...  

ObjectivePancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly metastatic disease and cytotoxic chemotherapy is the standard of care treatment for patients with advanced disease. Here, we investigate how the microenvironment in PDAC liver metastases reacts to chemotherapy and its role in metastatic disease progression post-treatment, an area which is poorly understood.DesignThe impact of chemotherapy on metastatic disease progression and immune cell infiltrates was characterised using flow and mass cytometry combined with transcriptional and histopathological analysis in experimental PDAC liver metastases mouse models. Findings were validated in patient derived liver metastases and in an autochthonous PDAC mouse model. Human and murine primary cell cocultures and ex vivo patient-derived liver explants were deployed to gain mechanistical insights on whether and how chemotherapy affects the metastatic tumour microenvironment.ResultsWe show that in vivo, chemotherapy induces an initial infiltration of proinflammatory macrophages into the liver and activates cytotoxic T cells, leading only to a temporary restraining of metastatic disease progression. However, after stopping treatment, neutrophils are recruited to the metastatic liver via CXCL1 and 2 secretion by metastatic tumour cells. These neutrophils express growth arrest specific 6 (Gas6) which leads to AXL receptor activation on tumour cells enabling their regrowth. Disruption of neutrophil infiltration or inhibition of the Gas6/AXL signalling axis in combination with chemotherapy inhibits metastatic growth. Chemotherapy increases Gas6 expression in circulating neutrophils from patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and recombinant Gas6 is sufficient to promote tumour cell proliferation ex vivo, in patient-derived metastatic liver explants.ConclusionCombining chemotherapy with Gas6/AXL or neutrophil targeted therapy could provide a therapeutic benefit for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.


Author(s):  
Wasita W Parksook ◽  
Mahyar Heydarpour ◽  
Shadi K Gholami ◽  
James M Luther ◽  
Paul N Hopkins ◽  
...  

Abstract: Context Salt sensitivity of blood pressure (SSBP) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, especially in individuals of African descent, although underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a salt-sensitive epigenetic regulator associated with SSBP and aldosterone dysfunction. An LSD1 risk allele in humans is associated with SSBP and lower aldosterone levels in hypertensive African but not European descent. Heterozygous knockout LSD1 mice display SSBP and aldosterone dysregulation, but this effect is modified by age and biological sex. This might explain differences in cardiovascular risk with aging and biological sex in humans. Objective To determine if LSD1 risk allele (rs587618) carriers of African descent display a sex-by-age interaction with SSBP and aldosterone regulation. Methods We analyzed 297 individuals of African and European descent from the HyperPATH cohort. We performed multiple regression analyses for outcome variables related to SSBP and aldosterone. Results LSD1 risk allele carriers of African (but not European) descent had greater SSBP than non-risk homozygotes. Female LSD1 risk allele carriers of African descent had greater SSBP, mainly relationship-driven by women of low estrogen (postmenopausal). There was a significant LSD1 genotype-sex interaction in aldosterone response to angiotensin II stimulation in individuals ≤50 years, with female carriers displaying decreased aldosterone responsiveness. Conclusions SSBP associated with LSD1 risk allele status is driven by women of deplete estrogen state. Mechanisms related to a resistance to develop SSBP in females are uncertain but may relate to an estrogen modulating effect on mineralocorticoid receptor activation and/or LSD1 epigenetic regulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carmela Gallo ◽  
Emiliano Manzo ◽  
Giusi Barra ◽  
Laura Fioretto ◽  
Marcello Ziaco ◽  
...  

Abstract The immune response arises from a fine balance of cellular and molecular mechanisms that provide for surveillance, tolerance, and elimination of dangers as pathogens. Improving the quality of the immune response remains a major goal in immunotherapy and vaccine development. Sulfavant A (SULF A) is a sulfolipid that has shown promising adjuvant activity in a cancer vaccine model. Here we report that SULF A is the first synthetic small molecule binding to the Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-2 (TREM2). The receptor engagement initiates an unconventional maturation of Dendritic cells (DCs) leading to upregulation of the Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHC Class II) and costimulatory molecules (CD83, CD86, DC54) without release of T helper type 1 (Th1) or 2 (Th2) cytokines. According to a TREM2 mechanism, this response is mediated by SYK-NFAT axis and is compromised by blockade and gene silencing of the receptor. Activation by SULF A preserved the DC functions to excite the allogeneic T cell response, and induced interleukin-10 (IL-10) release after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. These results well support the adjuvant effect of SULF A and offer novel insights into the role of TREM2 in the differentiation of an unprecedented DC phenotype (homeDCs) that contributes to the maintenance of immune homeostasis without compromising lymphocyte activation and immunogenic response. The biological function of SULF-A may be of interest in various physiological and pathological processes involving the immune system.


Author(s):  
Brian Maunze ◽  
Katherine Wood Bruckner ◽  
Nikhil Nilesh Desai ◽  
Christopher Chen ◽  
Fanghong Chen ◽  
...  

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) exerts pleiotropic effects on ventromedial nuclei (VMN) of the hypothalamus and its control of feeding and energy expenditure through the Type I PAC1 receptor. However, the endogenous role of PAC1R's in the VMN and the downstream signaling responsible for PACAP's effects on energy balance are unknown. Numerous studies have revealed that PAC1Rs are coupled to both Gas/ adenylate cyclase/protein kinase A (Gas/AC/PKA) and Gaq/phospholipase C/protein kinase C (Gaq/PLC/PKC), while also undergoing trafficking following stimulation. To determine the endogenous role PAC1R's and downstream signaling that may explain PACAP's pleiotropic effects, we used RNA interference to knockdown VMN PAC1Rs and pharmacologically inhibited PKA, PKC and PAC1R trafficking. Knocking down PAC1Rs increased meal sizes, reduced total number of meals, and induced body weight gain. Inhibition of either PKA or PKC alone in awake male Sprague Dawley rats, attenuated PACAP's hypophagic and anorectic effects during the dark phase. However, PKA or PKC inhibition potentiated PACAP's thermogenic effects during the light phase. Analysis of locomotor activity revealed that PKA inhibition augmented PACAP's locomotor effects, however, PKC inhibition had no effect. Finally, PACAP infusion in the VMN induces surface PAC1R trafficking into the cytosol which was blocked by endocytosis inhibitors. Subsequently, inhibition of PAC1R trafficking into the cytosol attenuated PACAP-induced hypophagia. These results revealed that endogenous PAC1Rs uniquely engage PKA, PKC and receptor trafficking to mediate PACAP's pleiotropic effects in VMN control of feeding and metabolism.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nathalie Lecat-Guillet ◽  
Robert B Quast ◽  
Hongkang Liu ◽  
Thor C Moller ◽  
Xavier Rovira ◽  
...  

Selective allosteric modulators bear great potential to fine-tune neurotransmitter-induced brain receptor responses. Promising targets are metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, which are associated to different brain diseases. These multidomain class C GPCRs experience concerted structural rearrangements and rely on allosteric modulation of agonist action to be fully activated. Here we establish live cell compatible fluorescence labeling of mGlu2 by click chemistry through genetic code expansion. Using lanthanide resonance energy transfer, we establish multiple FRET sensors to monitor ligand effects on conformational changes in mGlu2 extracellular domain and subsequently dissect the underlying conformational states by smFRET. Using three distinct FRET sensors, we demonstrate that mGlu activation relies on a ligand-induced sampling of three conformational states. Orthosteric agonists act by promoting the closure of the mGlu2 ligand binding domains, leading to an equilibrium between an inactive intermediate and the active state. Allosteric modulator further push this equilibrium toward the active state, promoting and stabilizing the relative reorientation of the mGlu protomers. These results underline the complex and dynamic nature of such type of neuroreceptors, pointing out that ligands fine-tune activation by differentially acting on the equilibria between multiple states.


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