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2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
Shuichi Hamada ◽  
Miyuki Shigano ◽  
Yumi Wako ◽  
Kazufumi Kawasako ◽  
Kensuke Satomoto ◽  

Abstract Background Currently, revisions to the ICH S1 guidance on rodent carcinogenicity testing are being proposed. Application of this approach would reduce the use of animals in accordance with the 3Rs principles (reduce/refine/replace). The method would also shift resources to focus on more scientific mechanism-based carcinogenicity assessments and promote safe and ethical development of new small molecule pharmaceuticals. In the revised draft, findings such as cellular hypertrophy, diffuse and/or focal cellular hyperplasia, persistent tissue injury and/or chronic inflammation, preneoplastic changes, and tumors are listed as histopathology findings of particular interest for identifying carcinogenic potential. In order to predict hepatocarcinogenicity of test chemicals based on the results from 2- or 4-week repeated dose studies, we retrospectively reanalyzed the results of a previous collaborative study on the liver micronucleus assay. We focused on liver micronucleus induction in combination with histopathological changes including hypertrophy, proliferation of oval cells or bile duct epithelial cells, tissue injuries, regenerative changes, and inflammatory changes as the early responses of hepatocarcinogenesis. For these early responses, A total of 20 carcinogens, including 14 genotoxic hepatocarcinogens (Group A) and 6 non-liver-targeted genotoxic carcinogens (Group B) were evaluated. Results In the Group A chemicals, 5 chemicals (NPYR, MDA, NDPA, 2,6-DNT, and NMOR) showed all of the 6 early responses in hepatocarcinogenesis. Five chemicals (DMN, 2,4-DNT, QUN, 2-AAF, and TAA) showed 4 responses, and 4 chemicals (DAB, 2-NP, MCT, and Sudan I) showed 3 responses. All chemicals exhibited at least 3 early responses. Contrarily, in the Group B chemicals (6 chemicals), 3 of the 6 early responses were observed in 1 chemical (MNNG). No more than two responses were observed in 3 chemicals (MMC, MMS, and KA), and no responses were observed in 2 chemicals (CP and KBrO3). Conclusion Evaluation of liver micronucleus induction in combination with histopathological examination is useful for detecting hepatocarcinogens. This assay takes much less time than routine long-term carcinogenicity studies.

2022 ◽  
Qiaoling Wu ◽  
Chun Ji ◽  
Lingli Zhang ◽  
Qingli Shi ◽  
Yuangen Wu ◽  

The work presented here describes a highly sensitive and simple electrochemical sensor for the detection of Sudan I dye based on MoS2 heterogeneous nanosheets (1T@2H-MoS2) and carboxylated carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs)...

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 79-102
Susan Wardell

Images can be powerful – and the choices that go into their making, both revealing and obscuring. In 2019 I undertook to make a stained-glass window, based on a photo I had taken ten years prior at a missionary base in South Sudan. I use reflections on this art project to highlight the idea of memory as practice, with a focus on the slippery and sometimes problematic ethics of ethnographic representation as a positioned, porous, and ‘becoming’ subject. Through explaining the context in which the photo was taken, alongside the process of the window’s construction, I reflect critically on discomfort, desire, risk, and imagination, considering the work of the (white) gaze and my own internalised structures of colonial feeling. I evoke ghosts, haunting, and the phantasmal to consider affective connections between (personal and historical) pasts and present, as well as self and other – with acknowledgement that sometimes a past self can also become an other that we must learn to recognise, and dwell with, as part of grappling with the ‘splinters’ of anthropological practice and being.

2021 ◽  
Vol 225 ◽  
pp. 112783
Chun-Hua Xing ◽  
Yue Wang ◽  
Jing-Cai Liu ◽  
Zhen-Nan Pan ◽  
Hao-Lin Zhang ◽  


In 2021, the French publishing house L'Harmattan published a monograph entitled Darfur peacekeepers the African Union peacekeeping mission in Darfur (AMIS) from the perspective of a Hungarian military advisor. The author of the 234-page monograph is Janos Besenyo. In addition to the author's preface and the conclusion, the monograph includes six substantive chapters. In the first chapter entitled Geography and history of Darfur, the author presents the geography, climate, flora and fauna, major cities, economy, infrastructure, different nationalities, ethnic groups and religions, and the history of Darfur. In the second chapter, entitled AMIS, he focuses on the African Union's mission in Sudan I (AMIS I), in which he presents the causes of the Darfur conflict, its outbreak and the African Union’s engagement in the conflict with the African Union's mission in Sudan. This is followed by a chapter entitled AMIS II, which presents the history, structure and operation following the decision to engage additional civilian and military observers, soldiers, police officers and additional financial and other resources. The fourth chapter presents a new mission called AMIS II E or AMIS III, which is also the title of the chapter. The letter E in the acronym stands for the word “enhanced,” which implicated the enhanced character of military presence in this mission. This chapter is composed of a subchapter entitled The Foreshadow of the Fall and the additional engagement of the United Nations, followed by the UN and African Union mission in Darfur, known as UNAMID. In the fifth chapter, entitled The Support Mission of the European Union, and its four substantive subchapters, the author presents several phases of the European Union's participation in the mission led by the African Union. Chapter six, entitled Hungarian Experience, describes Hungarian experiences from the missions in Darfur. Hungary first deployed its military observer to Darfur in 2004. Hungary's involvement in the mission in Africa seems unusual, as it was the only one of all the participating countries that had no colonial history, economic or any other interests in this part of the world, and at the same time had no previous experiences. The monograph has only one drawback, and that is the fact that it is not scientific. However, this is at the same time its advantage. Besenyo was an officer in the Hungarian Armed Forces for 31 years and was deployed in Darfur in the second half of 2005. He was strongly marked by his personal experience as a peacekeeper. Ever since, he has been devoting much attention to Africa-related security topics. His return from the mission of the African Union, the European Union, NATO, the United Nations and other organisations in Darfur coincided with his doctoral studies. Both of these activities have achieved the same effect as two rivers, which merge at the confluence and gain a lot of power and speed as their flow continues. After completing his military career, the author of the monograph being a prolific writer and restless researcher became actively involved in the academic environment as a university professor at the Obuda University in Budapest. In 2019, the Africa Research Institute was established within Doctoral School of Safety and Security Sciences, University of Óbuda, headed by Assistant Professor Besenyo, PhD. Considering the amount and quality of publications on the African continent, the institute is clearly very successful. From a European point of view, Africa is a very distant continent; however, the developments in that region and their results are increasingly affecting all of us in the European Union and beyond. The migration flow, which brought many African migrants to the shores of the Mediterranean over the last decade and peaked in 2015, has significantly changed and affected all the countries along their way, especially those that migrants had chosen as their target countries. Since everyone should have the right to live at home in peace, in their own way, with their family, it would be right that they are enabled to do so. Unfortunately, climate change, water scarcity, disease, poverty, differences in culture, religion, political order and natural resources, but sometimes only individuals or smaller associations, lead to various frictions, conflicts or even genocide, as was the case in Darfur. In such cases, the international humanitarian community and various security and other organizations are usually involved to assist the helpless population. In his monograph, Besenyo presented the full breadth and magnitude of international humanitarian efforts, but also the harsh reality where all those who want to help are exactly where they need to be, but despite all their efforts, they are completely powerless. I recommend Darfur Peacekeepers to be read by all those who care about the future of all of us and our descendants, but especially by those who have the opportunity and ability to influence the security of the country, the society and the individual. The content of the book provides an invaluable insight into the experience of a military officer. It is a valuable learning resource for all of us, but especially for members of the armed forces, police and civilian institutions that lead or support the activities within international missions.

Micromachines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1266
Elyse Fleck ◽  
Alec Sunshine ◽  
Emma DeNatale ◽  
Charlise Keck ◽  
Alexandra McCann ◽  

The rapid expansion of microfluidic applications in the last decade has been curtailed by slow, laborious microfabrication techniques. Recently, microfluidics has been explored with additive manufacturing (AM), as it has gained legitimacy for producing end-use products and 3D printers have improved resolution capabilities. While AM satisfies many shortcomings with current microfabrication techniques, there still lacks a suitable replacement for the most used material in microfluidic devices, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Formulation of a gas-permeable, high-resolution PDMS resin was developed using a methacrylate–PDMS copolymer and the novel combination of a photoabsorber, Sudan I, and photosensitizer, 2-Isopropylthioxanthone. Resin characterization and 3D printing were performed using a commercially available DLP–SLA system. A previously developed math model, mechanical testing, optical transmission, and gas-permeability testing were performed to validate the optimized resin formula. The resulting resin has Young’s modulus of 11.5 MPa, a 12% elongation at break, and optical transmission of >75% for wavelengths between 500 and 800 nm after polymerization, and is capable of creating channels as small as 60 μm in height and membranes as thin as 20 μm. The potential of AM is just being realized as a fabrication technique for microfluidics as developments in material science and 3D printing technologies continue to push the resolution capabilities of these systems.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (01) ◽  

Vật liệu polymer in dấu phân tử (MIP) chọn lọc cho sudan II được tổng hợp bằng phản ứng đồng trùng hợp giữa methacryclic axit (MAA) và ethylenglycoldimethacrylate (EGDMA), với chất khơi mào azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). Vật liệu này rất chọn lọc đối với Sudan II hiệu suất thu hồi đạt 86,67 %, trong khi Sudan I, Rhodamine 6G và Rhodamine B (lần lượt là 45,14 %, 8,11 % và 6,71 %). Khả năng hấp thụ tối đa Sudan II đạt được là 8,905 mg/1g vật liệu MIP. Qui trình phân tích Sudan II bằng HPLC đã được hiệu lực hóa trên nền mẫu thực phẩm nước ngọt siro và tương ớt. Hiệu suất thu hồi của phương pháp đạt trên 91%, giới hạn phát hiện (LOD) và giới hạn định lượng (LOQ) lần lượt là 10 µg/L và 33 µg/L. Sudan II trong nền mẫu nước ngọt siro và tương ớt được chiết tách bằng MIP và phân tích bằng phương pháp sắc ký lỏng (UPLC).

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