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Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 69-77
B. Salisu ◽  
S.M. Anua ◽  
W.R. Wan Ishak ◽  
N. Mazlan

The warm weather and high relative humidity in Malaysia are ideal for the survival and proliferation of mycotoxigenic fungi leading to a high rate of stored product contamination. This study was conducted to enumerate and characterise the mycotoxigenic fungi associated with commonly consumed food grains in Kelantan, Malaysia. The fungal bioburden and fungal identification from forty-four composite food samples comprising 11 samples each of maize, wheat, rice, and peanuts from open markets in Kelantan, Malaysia, were determined using standard mycological techniques. A total of 115 mould fungal isolates belonging to 12 species were isolated, of which Aspergillus flavus (17.39%), A. versicolor (13.04%), A. felis (12.17%), Neoscytalidium dimidiatum (11.3%), Penicillium cheresanum (11.3%) and P. chrysogenum (8.7%), were predominant. Peanuts were the most contaminated (9.7×105 ± 1.5×105 CFU/g) followed by maize (7.5×105 ± 1.8×106 CFU/g), wheat (1.9×105 ± 2.6×105 CFU/g), and rice (9.9×104 ± 1.5×105 CFU/g). The levels of the mycotoxigenic fungi in peanut, maize, and wheat were above the permissible limit of 102 CFU/g set by the Malaysian Ministry of Health and 102 to 105 CFU/g set by the International Commission for Microbiological Specification for Foods, signifying that they are unsafe for use as food or feed ingredients. Hence, there is a need for more stringent control measures.

Chenggong Xu ◽  
tian wu ◽  
Lizheng Duan ◽  
Yunhao Zhou ◽  
Yanmei Zhou

Abstract In recent years, the easily synthesized fluorescent probes with good photophysical and sensing properties have attracted widespread attention. Herein, by utilizing the fluorescence regulation effect of electron push-pull effect and the oxidation property of hypochlorite (ClO-) to C=N double bonds, we proposed two intramolecular charge transfer (ICT)-based fluorescent probes with typical aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties for ClO- detection. The synthesis process of the two probes is very convenient, and both of them can exhibit significant colorimetric and fluorescence changes within 3 min in the presence of ClO-. Moreover, compared with Probe A, the Probe B with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence centered at 677 nm was successfully applied to ClO- determination in tap water and food samples as well as live cell imaging.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 90
Miguel Mendes Costa ◽  
Miguel Cardo ◽  
Patricia Soares ◽  
Maria Cara d’Anjo ◽  
Andreia Leite

Animal and food sources are seen as a potential transmission pathway of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to humans. The aim of this study is to describe Campylobacter, Salmonella, and commensal Escherichia coli multi-drug resistance (MDR) in the food chain between 2014 and 2019 in Portugal. AMR surveillance data from food-producing animals and food were assessed. MDR relative frequencies were estimated by bacterial genus and year. AMR profiles were created using observations of resistance to antimicrobial classes from each isolate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were clustered using k-modes. Clusters were described by population, AMR classification, β-lactamases, sample stage, sample type, season, and year. Overall, MDR was more prevalent for E. coli, ranging from 74–90% in animal and 94–100% in food samples. MDR was found to be more widespread in resistance profiles that were common among E. coli and Salmonella isolates and in those exclusively observed for E. coli, frequently including (fluoro)quinolones and cephalosporins resistance. β-lactam resistance was observed around 75% to 3rd/4th-generation cephalosporins in E. coli. Clusters suggest an escalating MDR behaviour from farm to post-farm stages in all bacteria and that Salmonella (fluoro)quinolones resistance may be associated with broilers. These findings support policy and decision making to tackle MDR in farm and post-farm stages.

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