inhibitory neuron
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

145
(FIVE YEARS 78)

H-INDEX

27
(FIVE YEARS 10)

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Olesia M Bilash ◽  
Spyridon Chavlis ◽  
Panayiota Poirazi ◽  
Jayeeta Basu

The lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) provides information about multi-sensory environmental cues to the hippocampus through direct inputs to the distal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. A growing body of work suggests that LEC neurons perform important functions for episodic memory processing, coding for contextually-salient elements of an environment or the experience within it. However, we know little about the functional circuit interactions between LEC and the hippocampus. In this study, we combine functional circuit mapping and computational modeling to examine how long-range glutamatergic LEC projections modulate compartment-specific excitation-inhibition dynamics in hippocampal area CA1. We demonstrate that glutamatergic LEC inputs can drive local dendritic spikes in CA1 pyramidal neurons, aided by the recruitment of a disinhibitory vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing inhibitory neuron microcircuit. Our circuit mapping further reveals that, in parallel, LEC also recruits cholecystokinin (CCK)-expressing inhibitory neurons, which our model predicts act as a strong suppressor of dendritic spikes. These results provide new insight into a cortically-driven GABAergic microcircuit mechanism that gates non-linear dendritic computations, which may support compartment-specific coding of multi-sensory contextual features within the hippocampus.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaopeng Liu ◽  
Vipendra Kumar ◽  
Nien-Pei Tsai ◽  
Benjamin D. Auerbach

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a leading inherited cause of autism and intellectual disability, resulting from a mutation in the FMR1 gene and subsequent loss of its protein product FMRP. Despite this simple genetic origin, FXS is a phenotypically complex disorder with a range of physical and neurocognitive disruptions. While numerous molecular and cellular pathways are affected by FMRP loss, there is growing evidence that circuit hyperexcitability may be a common convergence point that can account for many of the wide-ranging phenotypes seen in FXS. The mechanisms for hyperexcitability in FXS include alterations to excitatory synaptic function and connectivity, reduced inhibitory neuron activity, as well as changes to ion channel expression and conductance. However, understanding the impact of FMR1 mutation on circuit function is complicated by the inherent plasticity in neural circuits, which display an array of homeostatic mechanisms to maintain activity near set levels. FMRP is also an important regulator of activity-dependent plasticity in the brain, meaning that dysregulated plasticity can be both a cause and consequence of hyperexcitable networks in FXS. This makes it difficult to separate the direct effects of FMR1 mutation from the myriad and pleiotropic compensatory changes associated with it, both of which are likely to contribute to FXS pathophysiology. Here we will: (1) review evidence for hyperexcitability and homeostatic plasticity phenotypes in FXS models, focusing on similarities/differences across brain regions, cell-types, and developmental time points; (2) examine how excitability and plasticity disruptions interact with each other to ultimately contribute to circuit dysfunction in FXS; and (3) discuss how these synaptic and circuit deficits contribute to disease-relevant behavioral phenotypes like epilepsy and sensory hypersensitivity. Through this discussion of where the current field stands, we aim to introduce perspectives moving forward in FXS research.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yann Roussel ◽  
Csaba Verasztó ◽  
Dimitri Rodarie ◽  
Tanguy Damart ◽  
Michael W Reimann ◽  
...  

Knowledge of the cell-type-specific composition of the brain is useful in order to understand the role of each cell type as part of the network. Here, we estimated the composition of the whole cortex in terms of well characterised morphological and electrophysiological inhibitory neuron types (me-types). We derived probabilistic me-type densities from an existing atlas of molecularly defined cell-type densities in the mouse cortex. We used a well-established me-type classification from rat somatosensory cortex to populate the cortex. These me-types were well characterized morphologically and electrophysiologically but they lacked molecular marker identity labels. To extrapolate this missing information, we employed an additional dataset from the Allen Institute for Brain Science containing molecular identity as well as morphological and electrophysiological data for mouse cortical neurons. We first built a latent space based on a number of comparable morphological and electrical features common to both data sources. We then identified 13 morpho-electrical clusters that merged neurons from both datasets while being molecularly homogeneous. The resulting clusters best mirror the molecular identity classification solely using available morpho-electrical features. Finally, we stochastically assigned a molecular identity to a me-type neuron based on the latent space cluster it was assigned to. The resulting mapping was used to derive inhibitory me-types densities in the cortex.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maximiliano José Nigro ◽  
Hinako Kirikae ◽  
Kasper Kjelsberg ◽  
Rajeevkumar Raveendran Nair ◽  
Menno P. Witter

The wide diversity of cortical inhibitory neuron types populating the cortex allows the assembly of diverse microcircuits and endows these circuits with different computational properties. Thus, characterizing neuronal diversity is fundamental to describe the building blocks of cortical microcircuits and probe their function. To this purpose, the mouse has emerged as a powerful tool to genetically label and manipulate specific inhibitory cell-types in the mammalian brain. Among these cell-types, the parvalbumin-expressing interneuron type (PV-INs) is perhaps the most characterized. Several mouse lines have been generated to target PV-INs. Among these mouse lines, the PV-IRES-Cre lines is the most widely used and demonstrated a high specificity and efficiency in targeting PV-INs in different cortical areas. However, a characterization of the performance across cortical regions is still missing. Here we show that the PV-IRES-Cre mouse line labels only a fraction of PV immunoreactive neurons in perirhinal cortex and other association areas. Our results point to a yet uncharacterized diversity within the PV-INs and emphasize the need to characterize these tools in specific cortical areas.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-34
Author(s):  
Xiaolin Hu ◽  
Zhigang Zeng

Abstract The functional properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) are thought to be closely related to the structural properties of this network, but the specific relationships remain unclear. Previous theoretical studies have suggested that sparse coding, an energy-efficient coding method, might underlie the orientation selectivity of V1 neurons. We thus aimed to delineate how the neurons are wired to produce this feature. We constructed a model and endowed it with a simple Hebbian learning rule to encode images of natural scenes. The excitatory neurons fired sparsely in response to images and developed strong orientation selectivity. After learning, the connectivity between excitatory neuron pairs, inhibitory neuron pairs, and excitatory-inhibitory neuron pairs depended on firing pattern and receptive field similarity between the neurons. The receptive fields (RFs) of excitatory neurons and inhibitory neurons were well predicted by the RFs of presynaptic excitatory neurons and inhibitory neurons, respectively. The excitatory neurons formed a small-world network, in which certain local connection patterns were significantly overrepresented. Bidirectionally manipulating the firing rates of inhibitory neurons caused linear transformations of the firing rates of excitatory neurons, and vice versa. These wiring properties and modulatory effects were congruent with a wide variety of data measured in V1, suggesting that the sparse coding principle might underlie both the functional and wiring properties of V1 neurons.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shenqin Yao ◽  
Quanxin Wang ◽  
Karla Hirokawa ◽  
Benjamin Ouellette ◽  
Ruweida Ahmed ◽  
...  

Abstract Identification of the structural connections between neurons is a prerequisite to understanding brain function. We developed a pipeline to systematically map brain-wide monosynaptic inputs to specific neuronal populations using Cre-driver mouse lines and the recombinant rabies tracing system. We first improved the rabies virus tracing strategy to accurately identify starter cells and to efficiently quantify presynaptic inputs. We then mapped brain-wide presynaptic inputs to different excitatory and inhibitory neuron subclasses in the primary visual cortex and seven higher visual areas. Our results reveal quantitative target-, layer- and cell-class-specific differences in the retrograde connectomes, despite similar global input patterns to different neuronal populations in the same anatomical area. The retrograde connectivity we define is consistent with the presence of the ventral and dorsal visual information processing streams and reveals further subnetworks within the dorsal stream. The hierarchical organization of the entire visual cortex can be derived from intracortical feedforward and feedback pathways mediated by upper- and lower-layer input neurons, respectively. This study expands our knowledge of the brain-wide inputs regulating visual areas and demonstrates that our improved rabies virus tracing strategy can be used to scale up the effort in dissecting connectivity of genetically defined cell populations in the whole mouse brain.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Deepa L Ramamurthy ◽  
Andrew Chen ◽  
Patrick C Huang ◽  
Priyanka Bharghavan ◽  
Gayathri Krishna ◽  
...  

Vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing (VIP) interneurons, which constitute 10-15% of the cortical inhibitory neuron population, have emerged as an important cell type for regulating excitatory cell activity based on behavioral state. VIP cells in sensory cortex are potently engaged by neuromodulatory and motor inputs during active exploratory behaviors like locomotion and whisking, which in turn promote pyramidal cell firing via disinhibition. Such state-dependent modulation of activity by VIP cells in sensory cortex has been studied widely in recent years. However, the function of VIP cells during goal-directed behavior is less well understood. It is not clear how task-related events like sensory stimuli, motor actions, or reward activate VIP cells in sensory cortex since there is often temporal overlap in the occurrence of these events. We developed a Go/NoGo whisker touch detection task which incorporates a post-stimulus delay period to separate sensory-driven activity from action- or reward-related activity during behavior. We used 2-photon calcium imaging to measure task-related signals of L2/3 VIP neurons in S1 of behaving mice. We report for the first time that VIP cells in mouse whisker S1 are activated by both whisker stimuli and goal-directed licking. Whisker- and lick-related signals were spatially organized in relation to anatomical columns in S1. Sensory responses of VIP cells were tuned to specific whiskers, whether or not they also displayed lick-related activity.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shenqin Yao ◽  
Quanxin Wang ◽  
Karla E Hirokawa ◽  
Benjamin Ouellette ◽  
Ruweida Ahmed ◽  
...  

Identification of the structural connections between neurons is a prerequisite to understanding brain function. We developed a pipeline to systematically map brain-wide monosynaptic inputs to specific neuronal populations using Cre-driver mouse lines and the recombinant rabies tracing system. We first improved the rabies virus tracing strategy to accurately identify starter cells and to efficiently quantify presynaptic inputs. We then mapped brain-wide presynaptic inputs to different excitatory and inhibitory neuron subclasses in the primary visual cortex and seven higher visual areas. Our results reveal quantitative target-, layer- and cell-class-specific differences in the retrograde connectomes, despite similar global input patterns to different neuronal populations in the same anatomical area. The retrograde connectivity we define is consistent with the presence of the ventral and dorsal visual information processing streams and reveals further subnetworks within the dorsal stream. The hierarchical organization of the entire visual cortex can be derived from intracortical feedforward and feedback pathways mediated by upper- and lower-layer input neurons, respectively. This study expands our knowledge of the brain-wide inputs regulating visual areas and demonstrates that our improved rabies virus tracing strategy can be used to scale up the effort in dissecting connectivity of genetically defined cell populations in the whole mouse brain.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maximiliano Jose Nigro ◽  
Hinako Kirikae ◽  
Kasper Kjelsberg ◽  
Rajeevkumar Nair Raveendran ◽  
Menno Witter

The wide diversity of cortical inhibitory neuron types populating the cortex allows the assembly of diverse microcircuits and endows these circuits with different computational properties. Thus, characterizing neuronal diversity is fundamental to describe the building blocks of cortical microcircuits and probe their function. To this purpose, the mouse has emerged as a powerful tool to genetically label and manipulate specific inhibitory cell-types in the mammalian brain. Among these cell-types, the parvalbumin-expressing interneuron type (PV-INs) is perhaps the most characterized. Several mouse lines have been generated to target PV-INs. Among these mouse lines, the PV-IRES-Cre lines is the most widely used and demonstrated a high specificity and efficiency in targeting PV-INs in different cortical areas. However, a characterization of the performance across cortical regions is still missing. Here we show that the PV-IRES-Cre mouse line labels only a fraction of parvalbumin immunoreactive neurons in perirhinal cortex and other association areas. Our results point to a yet uncharacterized diversity within the PV-INs and emphasize the need to characterize these tools in specific cortical areas.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniel Lam ◽  
Ana Antic Nikolic ◽  
Chen Zhao ◽  
Nazanin Mirza-Schreiber ◽  
Wojciech Krezel ◽  
...  

A highly evolutionarily conserved MEIS1 intronic region is strongly associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and insomnia. To understand its regulatory function, we dissected the region by analyzing chromatin accessibility, enhancer-promoter contacts, DNA methylation, and eQTLs in different human neural cell types and tissues. We observed specific activity with respect to cell type and developmental maturation, indicating a prominent role for distinct highly conserved intronic elements in forebrain inhibitory neuron differentiation. Two elements were hypomethylated in neural cells with higher MEIS1 expression, suggesting a role of enhancer demethylation in gene regulation. MEIS1 eQTLs showed a striking modular chromosomal distribution, with forebrain eQTLs clustering in intron 8/9. CRISPR interference targeting of individual elements in this region attenuated MEIS1 expression, revealing a complex regulatory interplay of distinct elements. In summary, we found that MEIS1 regulation is organized in a modular pattern. Disease-associated intronic regulatory elements control MEIS1 expression with cell type and maturation stage specificity, particularly in the inhibitory neuron lineage. The precise spatiotemporal activity of these elements likely contributes to the pathogenesis of insomnia and RLS.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document