sampling technique
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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-37
Robert A. Sowah ◽  
Bernard Kuditchar ◽  
Godfrey A. Mills ◽  
Amevi Acakpovi ◽  
Raphael A. Twum ◽  

Class imbalance problem is prevalent in many real-world domains. It has become an active area of research. In binary classification problems, imbalance learning refers to learning from a dataset with a high degree of skewness to the negative class. This phenomenon causes classification algorithms to perform woefully when predicting positive classes with new examples. Data resampling, which involves manipulating the training data before applying standard classification techniques, is among the most commonly used techniques to deal with the class imbalance problem. This article presents a new hybrid sampling technique that improves the overall performance of classification algorithms for solving the class imbalance problem significantly. The proposed method called the Hybrid Cluster-Based Undersampling Technique (HCBST) uses a combination of the cluster undersampling technique to under-sample the majority instances and an oversampling technique derived from Sigma Nearest Oversampling based on Convex Combination, to oversample the minority instances to solve the class imbalance problem with a high degree of accuracy and reliability. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested using 11 datasets from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Metric Data Program data repository and University of California Irvine Machine Learning data repository with varying degrees of imbalance. Results were compared with classification algorithms such as the K-nearest neighbours, support vector machines, decision tree, random forest, neural network, AdaBoost, naïve Bayes, and quadratic discriminant analysis. Tests results revealed that for the same datasets, the HCBST performed better with average performances of 0.73, 0.67, and 0.35 in terms of performance measures of area under curve, geometric mean, and Matthews Correlation Coefficient, respectively, across all the classifiers used for this study. The HCBST has the potential of improving the performance of the class imbalance problem, which by extension, will improve on the various applications that rely on the concept for a solution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 451-464
Michael Segun Ogunmuyiwa

Sales promotion and publicity are key promotional marketing tools which have assisted organizations to wax stronger in a global competitive environment. This study investigates the significance of publicity and sales promotion in Nigeria. The research design adopted for this study is survey research design while the sampling technique adopted is simple random sampling technique The Chi-square method is used to test the hypothesis based on the responses from the five-point Likert rating scale of the structured questionnaire. The findings reveal that publicity and sales promotion are veritable tools for achieving organizational marketing goals in a competitive marketing environment. It is recommended that publicity and sales promotion should be well utilized to stimulate customers demand, boost organizational reputation without detriment to product quality and performance. JEL Codes: M31, M37 Keywords: publicity, sales promotion, digital marketing era, promotion mix, marketing tools, marketing performance

2121 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 75-86
Asonye Christian Chinedu Chichi ◽  

Background: Organizational characteristics are the main concerns of nursing practice in acute care settings. The present study aimed to assess the organizational factors associated with nurses’ competence in averting Failure to Rescue (FTR) in acute care settings. Methods: This was a descriptive and correlational study. A purposive sampling technique was used to collect the necessary data from the study respondents. In total, 173 of the 204 eligible registered nurses providing sudden, urgent, and emergency direct care to patients in the identified acute care settings of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital in Sagamu City, Nigeria participated in this study. A self-structured 38-item questionnaire, including 4 parts (demographic characteristics, knowledge on FTR, competence in averting FTR, & organizational factors) was employed for data collection. The obtained data were analyzed in SPSS V. 22 using descriptive statistics (i.e. frequency, percentages, mean, standard deviation, & tables) as well as Spearman’s Rho correlation to test the hypotheses based on the assumptions that the variables were measured on an ordinal scale at P<0.05. Results: Most nurses presented a high level of knowledge regarding FTR with a mean score of 5.91. Besides, they were moderately competent in averting FTR with a mean score of 29.3. A significant correlation was also detected between organizational characteristics and the studied nurses’ level of competence in averting FTR (P=0.026). Conclusion: The present study data revealed that FTR could be reduced in acute care settings by the modification of organizational factors.

2121 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 9-16
Mansoureh Karimollahi ◽  
Zahra Tazakori ◽  
Roghiyeh Falahtabar ◽  
Mehdi Ajri-Khameslou ◽  

Background: There are specific challenges regarding the perceptions of families of comatose patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Identifying these perceptions may attract the cooperation of families with nurses and provide better care for patients. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of families of comatose patients in ICUs. Methods: This was a qualitative content-analysis study. Seventeen families with comatose patients were recruited by the purposive sampling technique. The necessary data were generated by semi-structured interviews, continued until data saturation, and concurrently analyzed by an inductive content analysis method. Results: Four main categories were manifested, including shock and disbelief, the effort for adaptation, exhaustion, and burnout, as well as hope and support. Conclusion: The obtained results signified the importance of nurses’ awareness concerning the family members’ perceptions of their comatose patient status in ICUs. The relevant findings reflected the need for nurses to pay attention to the feelings and emotions of the families of these patients.

James Okorocha

Abstract: The effect of population growth on urban housing is a global challenge but the worst examples are found in the developing world which has led to an increased growth of poorly planned cities in the developing world, and loss of aesthetics. The aim of this research is to assess the level of population pressure on urban housing within Ngwa Road, Ohanku and Obohia environs in Aba South local government area in Abia State. The research evaluated housing demand and supply in the area, condition of houses in the area, factors encouraging population growth in the study area and level of compliance of buildings with town planning laws. The study area has an estimated 2021 population of 138017 as projected from 88,951 in 2016 with a growth rate of 2.94%. The research data was collected through household survey, Aba South Town Planning Authority, National Population Commission and the Aba South Street Naming and House Numbering Office. The simple random sampling technique and the purposive sampling technique were employed by the researcher with a sample size of 399.9 at 0.05 confidence level which was determined using the Taro Yamane method for sample size collection. The Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Principle Component Regression (PCR), standard deviation, weighted mean, percentages/proportions to analyze the data collected. The Principal Component Analysis result showed that component I have the highest loading with eigen value of 6.721 while component II has an eigen value of 3.279. The result showed that ease of access to commercial activities and educational level of heads of households are major factors encouraging population growth in the study area. The research revealed a housing demand and supply cluster estimate of 60.11% which was not considered statistically high. The average response of 93.2% is that houses in the study area are in a poor condition. The Aba South town planning authority revealed a 0.741 standard deviation which shows a high level of non-compliance with town planning laws. The research hypothesis was tested using Spearman Rank Correlation test at 0.05 level of confidence and the null hypothesis was accepted. Looking at the Land-UseLand-Cover images of the area obtained for 3 epochs from 1980-2020, the study area experienced an major growth in rate of housing stock after year 2000 and with increasing population growth, the area may soon be unable to carry the population that will be found there. This research calls the attention of the Abia State government in particular and the federal government in general to address these challenges through recommended public-private partnership and decentralization of pull factors. These recommendat

Yuliusman ◽  
Dr. H. Afrizal, S.E. ◽  
Dr. H. Mukhzarudfa ◽  
Dr. H. Tona Aurora Lubis ◽  

This study entitled the influence of corporate governance mechanism on firm value with intellectual capital disclosure as an intervening variable. This study aims to examine the direct and indirect effect of board size, gender diversity, educational background, block holder ownership, and foreign ownership both simultaneously and partially on intellectual capital disclosure and firm value. This study examines the mediating effect of intellectual capital disclosure in the relationship between corporate governance mechanism and firm value. This study used the companies included in intellectual capital intensive industries in Indonesia Stock Exchange as the sample for 2017-2019. The sampling technique used in this study was purposive sampling, with 243 data from 81 companies. Analysis techniques used in this study were statistic descriptive, multiple regression, and path analysis used SPSS 23 for windows. The hypothesis testing results show that corporate governance mechanisms simultaneously influence intellectual capital disclosure (ICD) and firm value. Partially, only board size influences both ICD and substantial value, and educational background only influences strong value. The Sobel test shows that ICD doesn't mediate the effect of all variables related to corporate governance mechanism on firm value.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Iain Perry ◽  
Ifan B. Jâms ◽  
Roser Casas-Mulet ◽  
Josefina Hamutoko ◽  
Angela Marchbank ◽  

By identifying fragments of DNA in the environment, eDNA approaches present a promising tool for monitoring biodiversity in a cost-effective way. This is particularly pertinent for countries where traditional morphological monitoring has been sparse. The first step to realising the potential of eDNA is to develop methodologies that are adapted to local conditions. Here, we test field and laboratory eDNA protocols (aqueous and sediment samples) in a range of semi-arid ecosystems in Namibia. We successfully gathered eDNA data on a broad suite of organisms at multiple trophic levels (including algae, invertebrates and bacteria) but identified two key challenges to the implementation of eDNA methods in the region: 1) high turbidity requires a tailored sampling technique and 2) identification of taxa by eDNA methods is currently constrained by a lack of reference data. We hope this work will guide the deployment of eDNA biomonitoring in the arid ecosystems of Namibia and neighbouring countries.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 50-55
A. Herliah ◽  
Yusring Sanusi Baso ◽  
Healthy Hidayanty ◽  
Syafruddin Syarif ◽  
Aminuddin Aminuddin ◽  

Obesity is a disorder characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat. The nutritional impact is more than just disturbing the aesthetics of appearance. Obesity (overweight and overweight) is a new chronic disorder that soon becomes a global pandemic that is quite difficult to control. To improve the knowledge, attitudes, and Practice of Adolescent Girls about obesity. Use Pre-Experiment with one group pre-test and post-test design. Sampling technique using purposive sampling and obtained a total of 47 respondents. The research was conducted in the Senior High School of 12 Makassar in September-October 2021. Data analysis using the McNemar test. The results of statistics showed that there is an influence on the use of the web-based   She Smart education model of the knowledge and attitudes of Adolescent Girls with a value of p-value=0.008 (p<0.05). And there was no influence on the use of the web-based   She Smart education model on the Practice of Adolescent Girls with a p-value of 0.453 (p>0.05). There is an influence on providing obesity education before and after intervention through web-based obesity education media in improving knowledge and attitudes but does not affect the Practice of adolescent girls in overcoming the problem of obesity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 1107-1121
Erinna Indah Cahyaningrum ◽  
Prayekti Prayekti

This study aims to examine the effect of organizational culture and intrinsic motivation on affective commitment. This study also aims to examine whether job satisfaction acts as a mediating variable on the influence of organizational culture and intrinsic motivation on affective commitment to the employees of the Cooperatives and SMEs Service Office of Sleman Regency. This study uses the Associative method with a quantitative approach. The population in this study were all employees of the Department of Cooperatives and SMEs in Sleman Regency, with a sample of 45 employees. The sampling technique used saturated sampling with data collection using a questionnaire. The data analysis technique in this study used multiple linear regression, Sobel test, coefficient of determination, and standard beta. This study resulted in the findings that organizational culture has an effect on job satisfaction, and intrinsic motivation has an effect on job satisfaction. Likewise, organizational culture influences affective commitment. However, intrinsic motivation has no effect on affective commitment. Other findings show that job satisfaction has an effect on affective commitment. This study also produces findings that job satisfaction mediates the effect of organizational culture on affective commitment, and job satisfaction also mediates the effect of intrinsic motivation on affective commitment. Keywords: organizational culture, intrinsic motivation, job satisfaction, affective commitment.

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