Propagation Algorithm
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Author(s):  
Lionel Alangeh Ngobesing ◽  
Yılmaz Atay

Abstract: In network science and big data, the concept of finding meaningful infrastructures in networks has emerged as a method of finding groups of entities with similar properties within very complex systems. The whole concept is generally based on finding subnetworks which have more properties (links) amongst nodes belonging to the same cluster than nodes in other groups (A concept presented by Girvan and Newman, 2002). Today meaningful infrastructure identification is applied in all types of networks from computer networks, to social networks to biological networks. In this article we will look at how meaningful infrastructure identification is applied in biological networks. This concept is important in biological networks as it helps scientist discover patterns in proteins or drugs which helps in solving many medical mysteries. This article will encompass the different algorithms that are used for meaningful infrastructure identification in biological networks. These include Genetic Algorithm, Differential Evolution, Water Cycle Algorithm (WCA), Walktrap Algorithm, Connect Intensity Iteration Algorithm (CIIA), Firefly algorithms and Overlapping Multiple Label Propagation Algorithm. These al-gorithms are compared with using performance measurement parameters such as the Mod-ularity, Normalized Mutual Information, Functional Enrichment, Recall and Precision, Re-dundancy, Purity and Surprise, which we will also discuss here.


Optics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Muddasir Naeem ◽  
Noor-ul-ain Fatima ◽  
Mukhtar Hussain ◽  
Tayyab Imran ◽  
Arshad Saleem Bhatti

We report the design simulation of the Raman spectrometer using Zemax optical system design software. The design is based on the Czerny–Turner configuration, which includes an optical system consisting of an entrance slit, two concave mirrors, reflecting type diffraction grating and an image detector. The system’s modeling approach is suggested by introducing the corresponding relationship between detector pixels and wavelength, linear CCD receiving surface length and image surface dimension. The simulations were carried out using the POP (physical optics propagation) algorithm. Spot diagram, relative illumination, irradiance plot, modulation transfer function (MTF), geometric and encircled energy were simulated for designing the Raman spectrometer. The simulation results of the Raman spectrometer using a 527 nm wavelength laser as an excitation light source are presented. The present optical system was designed in sequential mode and a Raman spectrum was observed from 530 nm to 630 nm. The analysis shows that the system’s image efficiency was quite good, predicting that it could build an efficient and cost-effective Raman spectrometer for optical diagnostics.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 241-251
Author(s):  
Q. L. Nguyen ◽  
Q. M. Nguyen ◽  
D. T. Tran ◽  
X. N. Bui

The paper is devoted to studying the possibility of using artificial neural networks (ANN) to estimate ground subsidence caused by underground mining. The experiments showed that the most suitable network structure is a network with three layers of perceptrons and four neurons in the hidden layer with the back propagation algorithm (BP) as a training algorithm. The subsidence observation data in the Mong Duong underground coal mine and other parameters, including: (1) the distance from the centre of the stope to the ground monitoring points; (2) the volume of mined-out space; (3) the positions of the ground points in the direction of the main cross-section of the trough; and (4) the time (presented by cycle number), were used as the input data for the ANN. The findings showed that the selected model was suitable for predicting subsidence along the main profile within the subsidence trough. The prediction accuracy depended on the number of cycles used for the network training as well as the time interval between the predicted cycle and the last cycle in the training dataset. When the number of monitoring cycles used for the network training was greater than eight, the largest values of RMS and MAE were less than 10 % compared to the actual maximum subsidence value for each cycle. If the network training was less than eight cycles, the results of prediction did not meet the accuracy requirements.


Author(s):  
Samuel King Opoku

The choice of users’ activity in a context-aware environment depends on users’ preferences and background. Users tend to rank concurrent activities and select their preferred activity. Researchers and developers of context-aware applications have sought various mechanisms to implement context reasoning engines. Recent implementations use Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and other machine learning techniques to develop a context-aware reasoning engine to predict users’ activities. However, the complexities of these mechanisms overwhelm the processing capabilities and storage capacity of mobile devices. The study models a context-aware reasoning engine using a multi-layered perceptron with a gradient descent back-propagation algorithm to predict activity from user-ranked activities using a stochastic learning mode with a constant learning rate. The work deduced that working with specific rules in training a neural network is not always applicable. Training a network without approximation of neuron’s output to the nearest whole number increases the accuracy level of the network at the end of the training.


Author(s):  
Temitayo O. Oyegoke ◽  
Kehinde K. Akomolede ◽  
Adesola G. Aderounmu ◽  
Emmanuel R. Adagunodo

This study was developed an e-mail classification model to preempt fraudulent activities. The e-mail has such a predominant nature that makes it suitable for adoption by cyber-fraudsters. This research used a combination of two databases: CLAIR fraudulent and Spambase datasets for creating the training and testing dataset. The CLAIR dataset consists of raw e-mails from users’ inbox which were pre-processed into structured form using Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. This dataset was then consolidated with the Spambase dataset as a single dataset. The study deployed the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) architecture which used a back-propagation algorithm for training the fraud detection model. The model was simulated using 70% and 80% for training while 30% and 20% of datasets were used for testing respectively. The results of the performance of the models were compared using a number of evaluation metrics. The study concluded that using the MLP, an effective model for fraud detection among e-mail dataset was proposed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Qing Bian

Under the background of the vigorous development of China’s market economy, the marketing mix is constantly updated, which promotes the all-round development of various industries. Social media marketing has formed a relatively solid theoretical and practical foundation, especially with the continuous updating and iteration of Internet technology and the improvement of people’s requirements for experience, and we must find ways to optimize the methods of social media marketing. This study mainly introduces several optimization methods of social media marketing based on deep neural networks and advanced algorithms, and the experiments of gradient-based back-propagation algorithm and adaptive Adam’s optimization algorithm show that the proposed optimization algorithm can easily achieve the global optimal state based on the combination of back-propagation algorithm and Adam’s optimization algorithm. Accuracy of marketing is very important, so we introduce a scheme of how to accurately market, and the scheme is effective. Firstly, the FCE model is constructed by a three-layer back-propagation neural network, and then, the data input layer is designed to achieve the effect of the model.


Author(s):  
Chunying Li ◽  
Yong Tang ◽  
Zhikang Tang ◽  
Jinli Cao ◽  
Yanchun Zhang

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