cellular immune
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hui Zhang ◽  
Shuang Cao ◽  
Yang Gao ◽  
Xiao Sun ◽  
Fanming Jiang ◽  

A series of HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC recombinants were previously found to have emerged gradually in a superinfected patient (patient LNA819). However, the extent to which T-cell responses influenced the development of these recombinants after superinfection is unclear. In this study, we undertook a recombination structure analysis of the gag, pol, and nef genes from longitudinal samples of patient LNA819. A total of 9 pol and 5 nef CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC recombinants were detected. The quasispecies makeup and the composition of the pol and nef gene recombinants changed continuously, suggestive of continuous evolution in vivo. T-cell responses targeting peptides of the primary strain and the recombination regions were screened. The results showed that Pol-LY10, Pol-RY9, and Nef-GL9 were the immunodominant epitopes. Pol-LY10 overlapped with the recombination breakpoints in multiple recombinants. For the LY10 epitope, escape from T-cell responses was mediated by both recombination with a CRF07_BC insertion carrying the T467E/T472V variants and T467N/T472V mutations originating in the CRF01_AE strain. In pol recombinants R8 and R9, the recombination breakpoints were located ~23 amino acids upstream of the RY9 epitope. The appearance of new recombination breakpoints harboring a CRF07_BC insertion carrying a R984K variant was associated with escape from RY9-specific T-cell responses. Although the Nef-GL9 epitope was located either within or 10~11 amino acids downstream of the recombination breakpoints, no variant of this epitope was observed in the nef recombinants. Instead, a F85V mutation originating in the CRF01_AE strain was the main immune escape mechanism. Understanding the cellular immune pressure on recombination is critical for monitoring the new circulating recombinant forms of HIV and designing epitope-based vaccines. Vaccines targeting antigens that are less likely to escape immune pressure by recombination and/or mutation are likely to be of benefit to patients with HIV-1.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Katharina Braunger ◽  
Jiyoon Ahn ◽  
Matthijs M. Jore ◽  
Steven Johnson ◽  
Terence T. L. Tang ◽  

AbstractActivation of the serum-resident complement system begins a cascade that leads to activation of membrane-resident complement receptors on immune cells, thus coordinating serum and cellular immune responses. Whilst many molecules act to control inappropriate activation, Properdin is the only known positive regulator of the human complement system. By stabilising the alternative pathway C3 convertase it promotes complement self-amplification and persistent activation boosting the magnitude of the serum complement response by all triggers. In this work, we identify a family of tick-derived alternative pathway complement inhibitors, hereafter termed CirpA. Functional and structural characterisation reveals that members of the CirpA family directly bind to properdin, inhibiting its ability to promote complement activation, and leading to potent inhibition of the complement response in a species specific manner. We provide a full functional and structural characterisation of a properdin inhibitor, opening avenues for future therapeutic approaches.

2022 ◽  
pp. annrheumdis-2021-221558
Michael Bonelli ◽  
Daniel Mrak ◽  
Selma Tobudic ◽  
Daniela Sieghart ◽  
Maximilian Koblischke ◽  

ObjectivesSARS‐CoV‐2-induced COVID-19 has led to exponentially rising mortality, particularly in immunosuppressed patients, who inadequately respond to conventional COVID-19 vaccination.MethodsIn this blinded randomised clinical trial, we compare the efficacy and safety of an additional booster vaccination with a vector versus mRNA vaccine in non-seroconverted patients. We assigned 60 patients under rituximab treatment, who did not seroconvert after their primary mRNA vaccination with either BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna), to receive a third dose, either using the same mRNA or the vector vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford–AstraZeneca). Patients were stratified according to the presence of peripheral B cells. The primary efficacy endpoint was the difference in the SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroconversion rate between vector (heterologous) and mRNA (homologous) vaccinated patients by week 4. Key secondary endpoints included the overall seroconversion and cellular immune response; safety was assessed at week 1 and week 4.ResultsSeroconversion rates at week 4 were comparable between vector (6/27 patients, 22%) and mRNA (9/28, 32%) vaccines (p=0.6). Overall, 27% of patients seroconverted; specific T cell responses were observed in 20/20 (100%) vector versus 13/16 (81%) mRNA vaccinated patients. Newly induced humoral and/or cellular responses occurred in 9/11 (82%) patients. 3/37 (8%) of patients without and 12/18 (67%) of the patients with detectable peripheral B cells seroconverted. No serious adverse events, related to immunisation, were observed.ConclusionsThis enhanced humoral and/or cellular immune response supports an additional booster vaccination in non-seroconverted patients irrespective of a heterologous or homologous vaccination regimen.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
Piet Nuijten ◽  
Natalie Cleton ◽  
Jeroen van der Loop ◽  
Birgit Makoschey ◽  
Wilco Pulskens ◽  

Bovine parainfluenza type 3 (BPIV3) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) may cause bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in very young calves, and therefore vaccination should induce protection at the youngest age and as quickly as possible. This can be achieved by intranasal vaccination with a vaccine containing live attenuated BRSV and BPIV3 virus strains. The objective of this study was to measure gene expression levels by means of RT-qPCR of proteins involved in the innate and adaptive immune response in the nasopharyngeal mucosae after administration of the above-mentioned vaccine and after challenge with BPIV3. Gene expression profiles were different between (i) vaccinated, (ii) nonvaccinated-challenged, and (iii) vaccinated-challenged animals. In nonvaccinated-challenged animals, expression of genes involved in development of disease symptoms and pathology were increased, however, this was not the case after vaccination. Moreover, gene expression patterns of vaccinated animals reflected induction of the antiviral and innate immune pathways as well as an initial Th1 (cytotoxic) cellular response. After challenge with BPIV3, the vaccinated animals were protected against nasal shedding of the challenge virus and clinical symptoms, and in parallel the expression levels of the investigated genes had returned to values that were found before vaccination. In conclusion, in comparison to the virulent wild-type field isolates, the two virus strains in the vaccine have lost their capacity to evade the immune response, resulting in the induction of an antiviral state followed by a very early activation of innate immune and antiviral responses as well as induction of specific cellular immune pathways, resulting in protection. The exact changes in the genomes of these vaccine strains leading to attenuation have not been identified. These data represent the real-life situation and can serve as a basis for further detailed research. This is the first report describing the effects on immune gene expression profiles in the nasal mucosae induced by intranasal vaccination with a bivalent, live BRSV-BPI3V vaccine formulation in comparison to wild-type infection with a virulent BPI3V strain.

2022 ◽  
Rayner M. L. Queiroz ◽  
Siân Piper ◽  
Johanna Susan Rees ◽  
Sam Strickson ◽  
Emmanuel Briend ◽  

The ability of the cellular immune system to discriminate self from foreign antigens depends on the appropriate calibration of the T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling threshold. The lymphocyte homeostatic cytokine interleukin 7 (IL-7) is known to affect TCR thresholding, but the molecular mechanism is not fully elucidated. A better understanding of this process is highly relevant in the context of autoimmune disease therapy and cancer immunotherapy. We sought to characterise the early signalling events attributable to IL-7 priming; in particular, the altered phosphorylation of signal transduction proteins and their molecular localisation to the TCR. By integrating high-resolution proximity- phospho-proteomic and imaging approaches using primary T cells, rather than engineered cell lines or an in vitro expanded T cell population, we uncovered transduction events previously not linked to IL-7. We show that IL-7 leads to dephosphorylation of cytohesin interacting protein (CYTIP) at a hitherto undescribed phosphorylation site (pThr280) and alters the co-localisation of cytohesin 1 with the TCR and LFA-1 integrin. These results show that IL-7, acting via CYTIP and cytohesin-1, may impact TCR activation thresholds by enhancing the co-clustering of TCR and LFA-1 integrin.

2022 ◽  
Vol 98 (6) ◽  
pp. 706-720
A. Yu. Medkova ◽  
A. A. Lidzhiyeva ◽  
E. G. Semin ◽  
L. N. Sinyashina ◽  
R. A. Syundyukova ◽  

Introduction. A significant increase in the incidence of pertussis in the world, including among adolescents and adults, the prevalence of mild forms of the disease and asymptomatic carrier of bacteria B. pertussis, and the resulting need for mass revaccination of different age groups determine the demand for new vaccines against B. pertussis. In N.F. Gamaleya Federal Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, a live intranasal pertussis vaccine for the prevention of pertussis (GamLPV) has been developed. The GamLPV vaccine underwent preclinical studies that proved its safety and effectiveness in experiments on small laboratory animals and nonhuman monkeys. Safety of vaccine is shown in clinical studies on healthy volunteers.The aim of the study is to assess the immunogenicity of different doses of the drug GamLPV when first used in healthy volunteers.Materials and methods. The study was conducted as randomized placebo-controlled, blind trial with consistent volunteer inclusion and dose escalation. Study ID in clinicaltrials.gov database: NCT03137927 (A Phase I Clinical Study of a GamLPV, a Live Intranasal Bordetella Pertussis Vaccine). The following parameters of humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed in dynamics: levels of specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies in blood serum of volunteers and the number of cytokines interleukin-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ produced after specific induction in vitro of blood mononuclears of vaccinated volunteers. Dynamics of attenuated bacteria persistence in nasopharynx of vaccinated volunteers was evaluated.Results. Intranasal vaccination of volunteers with the drug Gam LPV resulted in the formation of a specific humoral (IgG and IgA) and cellular immune response. The dose-dependent nature of immunoglobulin and cytokine production was shown. Attenuated bacteria persisted for a long time in the nose/oropharynx of vaccinated volunteers.Discussion. Good tolerability of all tested doses of the drug justifies the choice for further investigation of a vaccine dose equal to 4 × 109 CFU. At the next stage, the safety and immunogenicity of two-time vaccination of volunteers will be studied.

2022 ◽  
pp. 030098582110691
Jeann Leal de Araújo ◽  
Raquel R. Rech ◽  
Aline Rodrigues-Hoffmann ◽  
Paula R. Giaretta ◽  
Cinthya Cirqueira ◽  

Proventricular dilatation disease is a lethal disease of psittacine birds. In this study, we characterized the local cellular immune response in the brain, proventriculus, and small intestine of 27 cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus) experimentally infected with parrot bornavirus 2 (PaBV-2). Perivascular cuffs in the brain were composed of CD3+ T-lymphocytes and Iba1+ macrophages/microglia in most cockatiels (n = 26). In the ganglia of the proventriculus, CD3+ T-lymphocytes (n = 17) and Iba1+ macrophages (n = 13) prevailed. The ganglia of the small intestine had a more homogeneous distribution of these leukocytes, including PAX5+ B-lymphocytes (n = 9), CD3+ T-lymphocytes (n = 8), and Iba1+ macrophages (n = 8). Our results indicate that perivascular cuffs in the brain and the inflammatory infiltrate in the proventriculus of PaBV-2-infected cockatiels is predominately composed of T-lymphocytes, while the inflammatory infiltrates in the ganglia of the small intestine are characterized by a mixed infiltrate composed of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and macrophages.

2022 ◽  
Amanda Zheutlin ◽  
Miles Ott ◽  
Ran Sun ◽  
Natalia Zemlianskaia Zemlianskaia ◽  
Meagan Rubel ◽  

Abstract Objectives: Determine durability of protection by the three currently available COVID-19 vaccines in the United States (US) following primary vaccination against breakthrough infections, hospitalizations, and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. Methods: Using claims and laboratory data covering 168 million lives, we conducted a matched case-control study with fully vaccinated individuals between January 1 and September 7, 2021. Odds ratios (OR) for developing outcomes in months two through six following full vaccination were estimated relative to the first month after full vaccination for each vaccine separately. Results: Evidence of waning protection against infections started in month 2 from vaccination for both BNT162b2 (OR [95% CI] in month 6+, 2.93 [2.72, 3.15]) and mRNA-1273 (OR [95% CI] in month 6+, 2.76 [2.51, 3.04]), and in month 4 for Ad26.COV2.S (OR [95% CI] in month 5+, 1.31 [1.18, 1.47]). Evidence of waning protection against hospitalization started in month 2 for BNT162b2 (OR [95% CI], 3.97 [3.26, 4.83] in month 6+) and in month 3 for mRNA-1273 (OR 95% CI, 1.66 [1.26, 2.19] in month 6+). There was no evidence of waning protection against hospitalization for Ad26.COV2.S (OR [95% CI], 1.25 [0.86, 1.80] in month 5+). No waning of protection was observed at any time for ICU admissions for all three vaccines. Conclusions: Following primary vaccination, all three vaccines showed strong and durable protection against ICU admissions. Ad26.COV2.S showed a more durable level of protection against breakthrough infections and hospitalizations in line with published evidence of its durable antibody and cellular immune response, although its Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) at baseline after a single-dose is lower than that for the two-dose mRNA vaccines. Additional studies are needed to understand durability following homologous or heterologous boosters.

Xuefang Mei ◽  
Yaoyao Zhang ◽  
Chenyu Quan ◽  
Yiying Liang ◽  
Weiyi Huang ◽  

As a putative model of Fasciola gigantica infection, detailed data in Kunming (KM) mice infected with F. gigantica are lacking. In this study, KM mice were orally infected with 15 metacercaria for 8 weeks. Macroscopic and microscopic changes, serum biochemistry, cytokine responses, and changes in parasite-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were monitored at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 8 weeks post-infection (wpi), respectively. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased after infection, while that of albumin (ALB) decreased, which was positively correlated with the degree of liver damage. Between 5 and 7 wpi, the mice showed symptoms of anemia and weight loss, possibly caused by the decrease of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Moreover, the changing tendencies of the levels of globulin (GLB) and parasite-specific IgG antibody were similar, suggesting a potential correlation between GLB production and adaptive immune response in the host. Coordinated variations in interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) indicated a mixed T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 cellular immune response. Furthermore, the serum IgG antibody increased after infection and peaked at 5 wpi, and it was positively correlated with the average parasite burdens. The worms collected from mice were approximately 1 cm in length at 8 wpi, their digestive and reproductive systems were well developed, and no eggs were found in the uterus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing detailed histological, biochemical, and immunological indices in KM mice infected with F. gigantica, which provides basic information on KM mice against infection with F. gigantica.

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