This paper proposes the application of a novel metaphor-free population optimization based on the mathematics of the Runge Kutta method (RUN) for parameter extraction of a double-diode model of the unknown solar cell and photovoltaic (PV) module parameters. The RUN optimizer is employed to determine the seven unknown parameters of the two-diode model. Fitting the experimental data is the main objective of the extracted unknown parameters to develop a generic PV model. Consequently, the root means squared error (RMSE) between the measured and estimated data is considered as the primary objective function. The suggested objective function achieves the closeness degree between the estimated and experimental data. For getting the generic model, applications of the proposed RUN are carried out on two different commercial PV cells. To assess the proposed algorithm, a comprehensive comparison study is employed and compared with several well-matured optimization algorithms reported in the literature. Numerical simulations prove the high precision and fast response of the proposed RUN algorithm for solving multiple PV models. Added to that, the RUN can be considered as a good alternative optimization method for solving power systems optimization problems.
Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
The COVID-19 pandemic has carried massive global health and economic burden that is currently counteracted by a challenging anti-COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Indeed, mass vaccination against COVID-19 is expected to be the most efficacious intervention to mitigate the pandemic successfully. The primary objective of the present study is to test the presence of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgA and IgG) in the breast milk and sera samples from vaccinated women at least 20 days after the complete vaccine cycle. A secondary aim is to compare the IgG antibodies level in maternal serum and breast milk. The third target is to evaluate the presence of the IgG antibodies in breast milk after several weeks from the vaccination. Finally, we collected information on the health status of infants in the days following maternal vaccination. Forty-two mothers were enrolled in the study. Thirty-six received the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, four the Astra Zeneca vaccine, one the Moderna vaccine and another woman Astra Zeneca in the first dose and Pfizer/BioNTech in the second dose. All 42 milk samples confirmed the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, and none showed IgA presence. Regarding the matched 42 sera samples, 41 samples detected IgG presence, with one sample testing negative and only one positive for seric IgA. None of the 42 infants had fever or changes in sleep or appetite in the seven days following the maternal vaccination. The level of IgG antibodies in milk was, on average, lower than that in maternal serum. According to our analysis, the absence of IgA could suggest a rapid decrease after vaccination even if frequent breastfeeding could favour its persistence. IgG were present in breast milk even 4 months after the second vaccine dose. Information on the immunological characteristics of breast milk could change mothers’ choices regarding breastfeeding.
Hendra virus (HeV) belongs to the paramyxoviridae family of viruses which is associated with the respiratory distress, neurological illness, and potential fatality of the affected individuals. So far, no competitive approved therapeutic substance is available for HeV. For that reason, the current research work was conducted to propose some novel compounds, by adopting a Computer Aided Drug Discovery approach, which could be used to combat HeV. The G attachment Glycoprotein (Ggp) of HeV was selected to achieve the primary objective of this study, as this protein makes the entry of HeV possible in the host cells. Briefly, a library of 6000 antiviral compounds was screened for potential drug-like properties, followed by the molecular docking of short-listed compounds with the Protein Data Bank (PDB) structure of Ggp. Docked complexes of top two hits, having maximum binding affinities with the active sites of Ggp, were further considered for molecular dynamic simulations of 200 ns to elucidate the results of molecular docking analysis. MD simulations and Molecular Mechanics Energies combined with the Generalized Born and Surface Area (MMGBSA) or Poisson–Boltzmann and Surface Area (MMPBSA) revealed that both docked complexes are stable in nature. Furthermore, the same methodology was used between lead compounds and HeV Ggp in complex with its functional receptor in human, Ephrin-B2. Surprisingly, no major differences were found in the results, which demonstrates that our identified compounds can also perform their action even when the Ggp is attached to the Ephrin-B2 ligand. Therefore, in light of all of these results, we strongly suggest that compounds (S)-5-(benzylcarbamoyl)-1-(2-(4-methyl-2-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl)-6-oxo-3,6-dihydropyridin-1-ium-3-ide and 5-(cyclohexylcarbamoyl)-1-(2-((2-(3-fluorophenyl)-2-methylpropyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-6-oxo-3,6-dihydropyridin-1-ium-3-ide could be considered as potential therapeutic agents against HeV; however, further in vitro and in vivo experiments are required to validate this study.
At present, secondary victimization of sexual violence is very common and it has negative effects to the victims. Secondary victimization raises the issues of the victims and it originates others. This victimization often associates with justice system but it may create by society, victims’ close environment and mass and social media. The primary objective of that research is to establish secondary victimization’s characteristics in the last years and its linkage with genre stereotypes about victims’ behavior before, during and after sexual violence. These stereotypes are the same in the different countries. In the current study, they assessed 10 cases using news, declarations, videos and sentences.
Expectations are among the main driving forces for economic dynamics. Therefore, managing expectations has become a primary objective for monetary policy seeking to stabilize the business cycle. In this paper, we study whether central banks can manage private-sector expectations by means of publishing one-period ahead inflation projections in a New Keynesian learning-to-forecast experiment. Subjects in the experiment observe these projections along with the historic development of the economy and subsequently submit their own one-period ahead inflation forecasts. In this context, we find that the central bank can significantly manage private-sector expectations and that this management strongly supports monetary policy in stabilizing the economy. Moreover, published central bank inflation projections drastically reduce the probability of a deflationary spiral after strong negative shocks to the economy.
Background: Life expectancy (LE) following Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is highly variable. The literature to date is limited by smaller sample sizes and clinical diagnoses. Objective: No study to date has evaluated predictors of AD LE in a retrospective large autopsy-confirmed sample, which was the primary objective of this study. Methods: Participants (≥50 years old) clinically and neuropathologically diagnosed with AD were evaluated using National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (N = 1,401) data. Analyses focused on 21 demographic, medical, neuropsychiatric, neurological, functional, and global cognitive predictors of LE at AD dementia diagnosis. These 21 predictors were evaluated in univariate analyses. Variables found to be significant were then entered into a forward multiple regression. LE was defined as months between AD diagnosis and death. Results: Fourteen predictors were significant in univariate analyses and entered into the regression. Seven predictors explained 27% of LE variance in 764 total participants. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was the strongest predictor of LE, followed by sex, age, race/ethnicity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, abnormal neurological exam results, and functional impairment ratings. Post-hoc analyses revealed correlations of LE were strongest with MMSE ≤12. Conclusion: Global cognitive functioning was the strongest predictor of LE following diagnosis, and AD patients with severe impairment had the shortest LE. AD patients who are older, male, white, and have more motor symptoms, functional impairment, and neuropsychiatric symptoms were also more likely have shorter LE. While this model cannot provide individual prognoses, additional studies may focus on these variables to enhance predictions of LE in patients with AD.
The attitude towards animals in research depends on both the role of the stakeholder and their personal characteristics. Most studies on the subject have been carried out on stakeholders from biomedical research institutes with comparatively few sociological studies on stakeholders from agricultural research centers. Previous findings suggest that animal caretakers at agricultural research centers felt undervalued by the hierarchy, and that animal reification was present in the sector. This may indicate that a lack of consideration for the animal subjects correlates with an inadequate sensitivity towards humans. Since these findings were published twenty years ago, there has been an increasing emphasis on the importance and actions of ethics committees in research, animal welfare bodies, and public concern for animals, which may have impacted the current perspective. To better understand current degrees of animal reification amongst stakeholders of agricultural research, we conducted semi-directive interviews at a leading agricultural research institute in France (INRAE). The interviews targeted both animal caretakers and researchers who were involved in the study of infectious diseases in livestock, or the behavior of horses and quails. After having transcribed the recorded interviews into text, semi-automatized analyses were carried out to categorize them into distinct groups, from which the most characteristic words and sentences were extracted. Three groups of stakeholders were identified: (i) animal caretakers involved in invasive infectious disease research; (ii) animal caretakers involved in behavioral research; and (iii) researchers. The findings show that animal caretakers felt acknowledged by their hierarchy. It is possible the increased skill criteria for people recruited into this position over the years, combined with greater prospects for continuous learning and development in the profession, may have fostered a more respectful regard across the hierarchy. The animal caretakers clearly expressed that their primary objective was to successfully execute the research protocols and that the animals were viewed as prototypes for research, with which they could, on occasion, develop a bond with. The bond was more important for animal caretakers involved in behavioral studies than for those involved in the study of infectious diseases, where invasive biological sampling and restraining of the animals is required. Researchers prioritized the procurement of robust data to test hypotheses, analyze phenomena, and publish their results. Their concern for the animals rather reflected the views of the general public opposed to thought-out personal opinions on the matter; this is possibly due to their comparatively limited interaction with the animals. They considered the animals in abstract terms that were indicative of reification. This study concludes that animal reification is still present, albeit to varying degrees amongst the stakeholders.
AbstractThe primary objective of this study is to respond to Grant and Marshak’s (J Appl Behav Sci 47:204–235, 2011) call for a move toward change perspectives that emphasize the generative nature of discourses, narratives, and conversations and how change practitioners discursively facilitate emergent processes. This article attempts to explore the question, “Can we specify the conditions and sources which make generative conversations emerge and may lead to a successful change effort in Japan?” The abductive inquiry into the question indicates that the generative change process convinces change sponsors that changing the dominant discourses and welcoming alternative ones can lead to the long-term development of the organization and the members. With respect to the sources of alternative discourses, psychological safety and trust in the external authority figure are generally required. The importance of survival anxiety and talent diversity may vary across the broad contexts on which organizations depend.
Our primary objective was to establish the efficacy of fluoride gel and fluoride varnish in the prevention of white spot lesions (WSLs) development during fixed orthodontic treatment.
Materials and Methods:
The study sample consisted of 60 adult patients in a prospective split-mouth study design. Interventions, that is, topical fluoride gel and topical fluoride varnish were assigned at the time of bonding to either the right or left halves of the dentition. In all subjects, repeated evaluation of demineralization was done on the facial surfaces of sample teeth in each quadrant. Evaluation using laser fluorescence and by direct visual observation under magnification was carried out at bonding (T0), 3 months (T1), and 6 months (T2).
The distribution of mean DIAGNOdent score at T1 (3.14 ± 1.00 vs. 2.81 ± 0.852) and T2 (4.17 ± 1.41 vs. 3.51 ± 1.13) was observed which is significantly higher in the Gel group compared to the Varnish group. In the Gel group, the distribution of mean DIAGNOdent score at T1 (3.14 ± 1.00) and T2 (4.17 ± 1.41) is significantly higher compared to mean DIAGNOdent score at baseline T0 (2.07 ± 0.66). In the Varnish group, the distribution of mean DIAGNOdent score at T1 (2.81 ± 0.852) and T2 (3.51 ± 1.13) is significantly higher compared to the mean DIAGNOdent score at T0 (2.07 ± 0.66). Visual scores also correlated with DIAGNOdent scores.
Fluoride varnish is more efficacious than fluoride gel in reducing enamel demineralization. Initial application of fluoride varnish around the orthodontic bracket at bonding appointment can offer significant protection against WSLs.