breast milk
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Carmen Freire ◽  
Luz Maria Iribarne-Durán ◽  
Fernando Gil ◽  
Pablo Olmedo ◽  
Laura Serrano-Lopez ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 165 ◽  
pp. 105535
Carina Rodrigues ◽  
Jennifer Zeitlin ◽  
Ana Raquel Carvalho ◽  
Diana Gonzaga ◽  
Henrique Barros

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Federica Scrimin ◽  
Giuseppina Campisciano ◽  
Manola Comar ◽  
Chiara Ragazzon ◽  
Riccardo Davanzo ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has carried massive global health and economic burden that is currently counteracted by a challenging anti-COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Indeed, mass vaccination against COVID-19 is expected to be the most efficacious intervention to mitigate the pandemic successfully. The primary objective of the present study is to test the presence of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgA and IgG) in the breast milk and sera samples from vaccinated women at least 20 days after the complete vaccine cycle. A secondary aim is to compare the IgG antibodies level in maternal serum and breast milk. The third target is to evaluate the presence of the IgG antibodies in breast milk after several weeks from the vaccination. Finally, we collected information on the health status of infants in the days following maternal vaccination. Forty-two mothers were enrolled in the study. Thirty-six received the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, four the Astra Zeneca vaccine, one the Moderna vaccine and another woman Astra Zeneca in the first dose and Pfizer/BioNTech in the second dose. All 42 milk samples confirmed the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, and none showed IgA presence. Regarding the matched 42 sera samples, 41 samples detected IgG presence, with one sample testing negative and only one positive for seric IgA. None of the 42 infants had fever or changes in sleep or appetite in the seven days following the maternal vaccination. The level of IgG antibodies in milk was, on average, lower than that in maternal serum. According to our analysis, the absence of IgA could suggest a rapid decrease after vaccination even if frequent breastfeeding could favour its persistence. IgG were present in breast milk even 4 months after the second vaccine dose. Information on the immunological characteristics of breast milk could change mothers’ choices regarding breastfeeding.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 127-131
Javaid Ahmad Mir ◽  
Nadiya Rashid

A newborn baby has only three demands. They are warmth in the arms of his mother, food from her breasts and security in the knowledge of her presence. Breastfeeding satisfies all three. While breastfeeding may not seem the right choice for every parent, it is the choice for every baby because it fulfills the physical needs as well as psychotic complementary of the child. The study aimedto find out the association of nipple soreness in experimental group and comparison group in terms of sample characteristics of postnatal mothers. A quasi experimental study was conducted on 70 postnatal mothers, (35 in experimental group and 35 in the comparison group) who breast feeds their babies were selected conveniently. Feeding pattern was assessed by LATCH scale four times in a day followed by the application of hind milk minimum four times in a day for three or four days as per discharge day of mother. The mother was asked to rub hind milk on nipples after feeding the baby and letting it air dry in front of researcher and nipple soreness scale was used to check the sore nipple at third and fifth day or at the day of discharge. Follow up of postnatal mothers was done telephonically by using interview questionnaire on day 15 in both groups. Study findings revealed that on 3rd day, the mean nipple soreness score was higher in comparison group (1.45) than experimental group (0.10) and thus there was significant difference (t value = 3.87) in nipple soreness score.Study concluded that breast milk application was effective in preventing sore nipples among postnatal mothers. Hence, it can be recommended to use breast milk for the prevention of sore nipple.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 202-208
Balqis Dwiyanti Haedar ◽  
Rauly Ramadhani ◽  
Andi Sitti Rahma

Exclusive breastfeeding is a condition in which infants are only given breast milk without the addition of other fluids and foods. until the baby reaches 6 months old. Breast milk strengthen the immune system in infants so they can avoid various diseases including diarrhea. This study aims to determine the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and the incidence of diarrhea in infants aged 0-6 months in the Sudiang Community Health Center. This research is an analytical survey research with a cross-sectional design. This research was conducted at the Sudiang Health Center, Makassar City in the period November 1st to December 31st, 2019. The total respondents were 89 mothers with babies aged 0-6 months. The results showed that most of the respondents were mothers with male babies (61%), most of the mothers' education was high school graduates (46%), housewives (75%) with low economic background (56%). Exclusive breastfeeding related to the incidence of diarrhea in children aged 0-6 months in the Sudiang Community Health Center with a value of p <0.05 (p = 0.001). In addition, no significant relationship on maternal nipple hygiene to diarrhea in children aged 0-6 months p <0.05 (p = 0.075). In conclusion, this study showed there is a relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and the incidence of diarrhea in children aged 0-6 months in Sudiang Health Center. There is a relationship between hand hygiene and the incidence of diarrhea in children aged 0-6 months in Sudiang Health Center, Makassar.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-5
Melsa Sagita Imaniar ◽  
Rissa Nuryuniarti ◽  
Sri Wahyuni Sundari ◽  
Wiatanti Wiatanti ◽  
Hikmatunnisa Hikmatunnisa

Bungursari Health Center in 2018 had stunting toddlers as many as 219 out of 1140 toddlers (19%). In 2018 there were 28 stunted toddlers with chronic malnutrition conditions, as well as pregnant women who experienced KEK as many as 23 people, as many as 56% of mothers who breastfeed exclusively and mothers as much as 74% have provided complementary breast milk since the age of 4 months and many mothers provide breast milk companion food with a menu that does not meet the STANDARD 4 quadrant WHO. This community service aims to carry out 1000 HPK mentoring training for cadres so that there is an increase in the knowledge and skills of cadres in escorting 1000 HPK so as to prevent stunting. Community Service training of 1000 HPK followed by 30 cadres for 2 days involving expert sources in their fields, namely the Head of Health Center, Midwife Coordinator, Nutritionist and Promkes and Midwife with the expertise of breastfeeding counselors, training is carried out face-to-face question and answer discussion methods and practicums. The results of the activities obtained are in the improvement of the knowledge and skills of cadres in controlling 1000 HPK.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Steven D. Hicks ◽  
Alexandra Confair ◽  
Kaitlyn Warren ◽  
Desirae Chandran

There is emerging evidence that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) within maternal breast milk (MBM) impart unique metabolic and immunologic effects on developing infants. Most studies examining ncRNAs in MBM have focused on microRNAs. It remains unclear whether microRNA levels are related to other ncRNAs, or whether they are impacted by maternal characteristics. This longitudinal cohort study examined 503 MBM samples from 192 mothers to: 1) identify the most abundant ncRNAs in MBM; 2) examine the impact of milk maturity on ncRNAs; and 3) determine whether maternal characteristics affect ncRNAs. MBM was collected at 0, 1, and 4 months post-delivery. High throughput sequencing quantified ncRNAs within the lipid fraction. There were 3069 ncRNAs and 238 microRNAs with consistent MBM presence (≥10 reads in ≥10% samples). Levels of 17 ncRNAs and 11 microRNAs accounted for 80% of the total RNA content. Most abundant microRNAs displayed relationships ([R]&gt;0.2, adj p&lt; 0.05) with abundant ncRNAs. A large proportion of ncRNAs (1269/3069; 41%) and microRNAs (206/238; 86%) were affected by MBM maturity. The majority of microRNAs (111/206; 54%) increased from 0-4 months. Few ncRNAs and microRNAs were affected (adj p &lt; 0.05) by maternal age, race, parity, body mass index, gestational diabetes, or collection time. However, nearly half of abundant microRNAs (4/11) were impacted by diet. To our knowledge this is the largest study of MBM ncRNAs, and the first to demonstrate a relationship between MBM microRNAs and maternal diet. Such knowledge could guide nutritional interventions aimed at optimizing metabolic and immunologic microRNA profiles within MBM.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Sharmeel Khaira ◽  
Antoinette Pert ◽  
Emily Farrell ◽  
Cecelia Sibley ◽  
Karen Harvey-Wilkes ◽  

Background: Expressed breast milk (EBM) protein content is highly variable between mothers and often below published values that are still used for EBM protein fortification strategies. This approach may result in significant protein deficit and suboptimal protein energy (P/E) ratio. The study aim was to determine whether individualized EBM protein analysis and fortification will reduce preterm infant protein deficits and improve growth and neurodevelopmental outcome.Study Methods: In a single-center randomized, blinded study of infants born at 24 0/7–29 6/7 weeks, mother-specific protein values measured by a milk analyzer were used to individualize infant-specific protein intake (interventional group, IG), and compared this to a standardized protein fortification scheme based on published values of EBM protein content of 1.4 g/dL (control group, CG). For IG, milk analyzer protein values of mother's EBM were used to adjust protein content of the EBM. The CG EBM protein content was adjusted using the standard published value of 1.4 g/dL and not based on milk analyzer values. EBM protein content, protein intake, protein/energy (P/E) ratio, weight (WT), head circumference (HC), length (L), growth velocity (GV) from 2 to 6 weeks of age, WT, HC and L Z-Scores at 32- and 35-weeks PMA, and lean body mass (35 weeks PMA skin fold thickness) were measured. Neurodevelopment was assessed by Bayley III at average 24 months corrected gestational age (CGA).Results: EBM protein content before fortification was significantly below published values of 1.4 g/dL at all time points in both CG and IG. CG protein deficit was significantly decreased and progressively worsened throughout the study. Individualized protein fortification in IG avoided protein deficit and optimized P/E ratio. Although no significant change in short-term GV (at 6 weeks of age) was seen between groups, IG infants born at &lt;27 weeks had significant improvements in WT and L z-scores, and leaner body mass at 32 and 35 weeks PMA. IG exhibited significantly improved cognitive scores at 24 months CGA.Conclusions: Infant-specific protein supplementation of mother's EBM optimized P/E ratio by eliminating protein deficit and improved growth z scores at 32- and 35-weeks PMA and neurocognitive testing at 24 months.

T. Verulava ◽  
N. Galogre

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease can affect women at any stage of pregnancy, and newborns could become infected with SARS-CoV-2 through vertical or horizontal transmission. Little is known about SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates born to mothers with COVID-19. Experts emphasize the importance of ensuring the safety of newborns without compromising the benefits of early contact with the mother. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of newborns born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Observational, prospective cohort study was conducted in the intensive care unit of the perinatal center (Georgia). Information was collected by reviewing and personal observations of medical histories of newborns born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The study included 38 newborns with suspected (n = 16; 42.1%) and confirmed (n = 22; 57.9%) COVID-19 infection cases, treated in the neonatal intensive care unit. The study did not reveal the risk of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection and confirmed a fairly large rate of horizontal transmission of infection (n = 25; 66%). Skin-to-skin mother care was performed in 68.7% of newborns, 26.3% received exclusive maternal or donated breast milk during hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Prevention of horizontal transmission of infection in newborns should be a priority. It is recommended skin-to-skin mother care and maternal or donated breast milk during hospital stay, taking into account the health of the mother and the newborn, following the rules of hygiene and use of the mask by the infected mother.

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