socioeconomic factors
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261317
Sofie van Rongen ◽  
Michel Handgraaf ◽  
Maaike Benoist ◽  
Emely de Vet

Growing evidence suggests that relative disadvantage is more relevant than absolute socioeconomic factors in explaining disparities in healthfulness of diet. In a series of pre-registered experiments, we tested whether personal relative deprivation (PRD), i.e. the sense that one is unfairly deprived of a deserved outcome relative to others, results in choosing more palatable, rewarding foods. Study 1 (N = 102) demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of a game for inducing real-time experiences of PRD. Study 2 (N = 287) showed no main effect of PRD condition on hypothetical food choices, but an interaction between chronic PRD and condition revealed that those in the PRD condition chose more rewarding foods when feeling chronically deprived. In Study 3 (N = 260) the hypothesized main effect was found on real, non-hypothetical food choices: those in the PRD condition chose more rewarding foods, controlling for sensitivity to palatable food. Our results provide preliminary indications that the experience of being relatively deprived, rather than the objective amount or resources, may result in a higher preference for high-caloric and palatable foods. It may be suggested that efforts to reduce societal disparities in healthfulness of diet may need to focus on perceptions of injustice beyond objective inequalities.

Edward J. Testa ◽  
Jacob M. Modest ◽  
Peter Brodeur ◽  
Nicholas J. Lemme ◽  
Joseph A. Gil ◽  

Xiangxue Zhang ◽  
Changxiu Cheng

In recent years, air pollution caused by PM2.5 in China has become increasingly severe. This study applied a Bayesian space–time hierarchy model to reveal the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the PM2.5 concentrations in China. In addition, the relationship between meteorological and socioeconomic factors and their interaction with PM2.5 during 2000–2018 was investigated based on the GeoDetector model. Results suggested that the concentration of PM2.5 across China first increased and then decreased between 2000 and 2018. Geographically, the North China Plain and the Yangtze River Delta were high PM2.5 pollution areas, while Northeast and Southwest China are regarded as low-risk areas for PM2.5 pollution. Meanwhile, in Northern and Southern China, the population density was the most important socioeconomic factor affecting PM2.5 with q values of 0.62 and 0.66, respectively; the main meteorological factors affecting PM2.5 were air temperature and vapor pressure, with q values of 0.64 and 0.68, respectively. These results are conducive to our in-depth understanding of the status of PM2.5 pollution in China and provide an important reference for the future direction of PM2.5 pollution control.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000313482110547
Chelsea Knotts ◽  
Alexandra Van Horn ◽  
Krysta Orminski ◽  
Stephanie Thompson ◽  
Jacob Minor ◽  

Background Previous literature demonstrates correlations between comorbidities and failure to complete adjuvant chemotherapy. Frailty and socioeconomic disparities have also been implicated in affecting cancer treatment outcomes. This study examines the effect of demographics, comorbidities, frailty, and socioeconomic status on chemotherapy completion rates in colorectal cancer patients. Methods This was an observational case-control study using retrospective data from Stage II and III colorectal cancer patients offered chemotherapy between January 01, 2013 and January 01, 2018. Data was obtained using the cancer registry, supplemented with chart review. Patients were divided based on treatment completion and compared with respect to comorbidities, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score, and insurance status using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results 228 patients were identified: 53 Stage II and 175 Stage III. Of these, 24.5% of Stage II and 30.3% of Stage III patients did not complete chemotherapy. Neither ECOG status nor any comorbidity predicted failure to complete treatment. Those failing to complete chemotherapy were older (64.4 vs 60.8 years, P = .043). Additionally, those with public assistance or self-pay were less likely to complete chemotherapy than those with private insurance ( P = .049). Both factors (older age/insurance status) remained significant on multivariate analysis (increasing age at diagnosis: OR 1.03, P =.034; public insurance: OR 1.84, P = .07; and self-pay status: OR 4.49, P = .03). Conclusions No comorbidity was associated with failure to complete therapy, nor was frailty, as assessed by ECOG score. Though frailty was not significant, increasing age was, possibly reflecting negative attitudes toward chemotherapy in older populations. Insurance status also predicted failure to complete treatment, suggesting disparities in access to treatment, affected by socioeconomic factors.

2022 ◽  
pp. 975-989
Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan ◽  
Kholoud Kahime ◽  
Mehdi Ait Laaradia ◽  
Btissam Bouimeja ◽  
Fadoua Aabadi ◽  

Every year, more than 1 million cases of scorpion envenomation are reported worldwide. Scorpions are thermophilic organisms. They are sensitive to weather and climate conditions, in such a way the ongoing trends of increasing temperature and more variable weather could lead to scorpionism spreading. There has been considerable debate as to whether global envenomation will be impacted by climate change which has focused on snake and spider envenomation risk. This debate didn't give enough interest to scorpion stings and its burden risks, in spite their widespread potential effects in many regions. Here, the authors review how climate and climate change may impact scorpion activity as well as scorpion envenomation. They contrast ecological and behavioral characteristics of these arthropods, and how weather, climate, climate change, and socioeconomic factors may have very different impacts on the spatiotemporal occurrence and abundance of scorpions, and the resulting scorpion envenomation.

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