The use of commercial food waste in the Korean agricultural industry is increasing due to its capacity to act as an ecofriendly fertilizer. However, the high salt content of food waste can be detrimental to plant health and increase salinity levels in agricultural fields. In the current study, we introduced halotolerant rhizobacteria to neutralize the negative impact of food waste-related salt stress on crop productivity. We isolated halotolerant rhizobacteria from plants at Pohang beach, and screened bacterial isolates for their plant growth-promoting traits and salt stress-mitigating capacity; consequently, the bacterial isolate Bacillus pumilus MAK9 was selected for further investigation. This isolate showed higher salt stress tolerance and produced indole-3-acetic acid along with other organic acids. Furthermore, the inoculation of B. pumilus MAK9 into Chinese cabbage plants alleviated the effects of salt stress and enhanced plant growth parameters, i.e., it increased shoot length (32%), root length (41%), fresh weight (18%), dry weight (35%), and chlorophyll content (13%) compared with such measurements in plants treated with food waste only (control). Moreover, relative to control plants, inoculated plants showed significantly decreased abscisic acid content (2-fold) and increased salicylic acid content (11.70%). Bacillus pumilus MAK9-inoculated Chinese cabbage plants also showed a significant decrease in glutathione (11%), polyphenol oxidase (17%), and superoxide anions (18%), but an increase in catalase (14%), peroxidase (19%), and total protein content (26%) in comparison to the levels in control plants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis showed that B. pumilus MAK9-inoculated plants had higher calcium (3%), potassium (22%), and phosphorus (15%) levels, whereas sodium content (7%) declined compared with that in control plants. Similarly, increases in glucose (17%), fructose (11%), and sucrose (14%) contents were recorded in B. pumilus MAK9-inoculated plants relative to in control plants. The bacterial isolate MAK9 was confirmed as B. pumilus using 16S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis. In conclusion, the use of commercially powered food waste could be a climate-friendly agricultural practice when rhizobacteria that enhance tolerance to salinity stress are also added to plants.