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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jens P.E. Schouten ◽  
Samantha Noteboom ◽  
Roland M. Martens ◽  
Steven W. Mes ◽  
C. René Leemans ◽  

Abstract Background  Accurate segmentation of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is important for radiotherapy treatment planning. Manual segmentation of these tumors is time-consuming and vulnerable to inconsistencies between experts, especially in the complex head and neck region. The aim of this study is to introduce and evaluate an automatic segmentation pipeline for HNSCC using a multi-view CNN (MV-CNN). Methods The dataset included 220 patients with primary HNSCC and availability of T1-weighted, STIR and optionally contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images together with a manual reference segmentation of the primary tumor by an expert. A T1-weighted standard space of the head and neck region was created to register all MRI sequences to. An MV-CNN was trained with these three MRI sequences and evaluated in terms of volumetric and spatial performance in a cross-validation by measuring intra-class correlation (ICC) and dice similarity score (DSC), respectively. Results The average manual segmented primary tumor volume was 11.8±6.70 cm3 with a median [IQR] of 13.9 [3.22-15.9] cm3. The tumor volume measured by MV-CNN was 22.8±21.1 cm3 with a median [IQR] of 16.0 [8.24-31.1] cm3. Compared to the manual segmentations, the MV-CNN scored an average ICC of 0.64±0.06 and a DSC of 0.49±0.19. Improved segmentation performance was observed with increasing primary tumor volume: the smallest tumor volume group (<3 cm3) scored a DSC of 0.26±0.16 and the largest group (>15 cm3) a DSC of 0.63±0.11 (p<0.001). The automated segmentation tended to overestimate compared to the manual reference, both around the actual primary tumor and in false positively classified healthy structures and pathologically enlarged lymph nodes. Conclusion An automatic segmentation pipeline was evaluated for primary HNSCC on MRI. The MV-CNN produced reasonable segmentation results, especially on large tumors, but overestimation decreased overall performance. In further research, the focus should be on decreasing false positives and make it valuable in treatment planning.

2022 ◽  
pp. 014556132110693
Pedro Lopes Alexandre ◽  
Ricardo Matos ◽  
Ana Marques ◽  
Helena Silveira ◽  
Pedro Santos Marques ◽  

Cutaneous metastases from squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region are uncommon, and their location at the nasal tip is exceptionally rare. A patient, previously treated with surgery and chemoradiation for a hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, developed several red nodular skin lesions at the nasal tip. Biopsy revealed cutaneous metastasis from the primary tumor. This manifestation was previously described as a “clown nose,” given their appearance and location. Skin lesions should raise suspicion of malignancy, despite their location at uncommon places, particularly in patients with previous diagnosed cancer. Clinicians must be aware that metastases from head and neck cancer can present as a “clown nose.”

2022 ◽  
Vol 63 (4) ◽  
pp. 176-178
Maythem Abdulhassan Al-Kaisy ◽  
Noura Ishaq Al-Shaibani ◽  
Mohammad Fazallulah

Abstract:   Background: Subcutaneous emphysema is a common presentation to the emergency department. The presence of emphysema in the head and neck region due to dental procedure is not common, and the presence of pneumomediastinum is exceedingly rare. Case Report: A young lady, presented to the emergency department with chest pain, found to have pneumomediastinum following a dental procedure including a wisdom tooth extraction. Conclusion: Complications following dental procedures are not uncommon, hence there should be a high index of suspicion for the emergency physicians for such patients, especially those where air turbine dental tools have been used.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-03
Hafeza MS ◽  
Vanitha Palanisamy

Here we present a 43-years old Malay man with Kimura’s disease of the right parotid gland. Asian men have a predisposition for this chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology mostly presenting at the head and neck region. The management in dealing with this patient is not straight forward as the presentation mimics a subcutaneous tumor-like mass in which main differential diagnosis includes lymphoproliferative disorders and parotid neoplasm. Moreover, cytological investigation is inadequate, and this necessitates the use intra-operative frozen section prior to tumor debulking. Without proper investigation, misdiagnosis can occur and potentially expose the patient to unnecessary extensive surgical procedures. Here we discuss step by step approach in managing this patient.

Nadja Salomon ◽  
Abderaouf Selmi ◽  
Christian Grunwitz ◽  
Anthony Kong ◽  
Eliana Stanganello ◽  

AbstractHuman papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a causative agent for several cancers types (genital, anal and head and neck region). The HPV E6 and E7 proteins are oncogenic drivers and thus are ideal candidates for therapeutic vaccination. We recently reported that a novel ribonucleic acid lipoplex (RNA-LPX)-based HPV16 vaccine, E7 RNA-LPX, mediates regression of mouse HPV16+ tumors and establishes protective T cell memory. An HPV16 E6/E7 RNA-LPX vaccine is currently being investigated in two phase I and II clinical trials in various HPV-driven cancer types; however, it remains a high unmet medical need for treatments for patients with radiosensitive HPV16+ tumors. Therefore, we set out to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of E7 RNA-LPX vaccine combined with standard-of-care local radiotherapy (LRT). We demonstrate that E7 RNA-LPX synergizes with LRT in HPV16+ mouse tumors, with potent therapeutic effects exceeding those of either monotherapy. Mode of action studies revealed that the E7 RNA-LPX vaccine induced high numbers of intratumoral-E7-specific CD8+T cells, rendering cold tumors immunologically hot, whereas LRT primarily acted as a cytotoxic therapy, reducing tumor mass and intratumor hypoxia by predisposing tumor cells to antigen-specific T cell-mediated killing. Overall, LRT enhanced the effector function of E7 RNA-LPX-primed T cell responses. The therapeutic synergy was dependent on total radiation dose, rather than radiation dose-fractionation. Together, these results show that LRT synergizes with E7 RNA-LPX and enhances its anti-tumor activity against HPV16+ cancer models. This work paves into a new translational therapy for HPV16+ cancer patients.

Francisco Esteban ◽  
Pablo Ramos-García ◽  
Miguel Muñoz ◽  
Miguel Ángel González-Moles

Head and neck cancer is a growing worldwide public health problem, accounting for approximately 1,500,000 new cases and 500,000 deaths annually. Substance P (SP) is a peptide of the tachykinin family, which has roles related to a large number of physiological mechanisms in humans. The implications of SP in carcinogenesis have recently been reported through the stimulation of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), or directly, through the effects derived from the constitutive activation of NK1R. Consequently, SP/NK1R seems to play relevant roles in cancer, upregulating cell proliferation, cell migration and chronic inflammation, among other oncogenic actions. Furthermore, there is growing evidence pointing to a central role for SP in tumour progression, singularly so in laryngeal and oral squamous cell carcinomas. The current narrative review of the literature focuses on the relationship between the SP/NK1R system and chronic inflammation and cancer in the head-and-neck region. We described a role for SP/NK1R in the transition from chronic inflammation of the head and neck mucosa, to preneoplastic and neoplastic transformation and progression.

Haeun Yum ◽  
Hamin Lim ◽  
Dahae Min ◽  
Chani Kwon ◽  
Jiin Seo ◽  

Many elderly people use hip protectors to prevent hip fractures from sideways falls. These hip protectors absorb or shunt away the energy applied to the greater trochanter. Herein, shear-thickening polymer (STP)-based hip protectors composed of STP and polyurethane foam are studied. The purpose of this study was to identify the main factor that reduces the impact force directly applied to the femoral neck region and to determine the optimal thickness of STP in hip protectors. Seven hip protectors of different thicknesses were prepared, and two sets of free-fall mechanical tests with a low impact energy of 25.1 J and moderate impact energy of 44.1 J were conducted for each hip protector. When the thickness of STP exceeded 8 mm, the resultant peak force tended to plateau under both impact conditions, and the force attenuation capacity decreased even under low impact energy conditions. Thus, a hip protector with a 6 mm or 8 mm STP and 5 mm foam was recommended. The STP was the key factor affecting force attenuation capacity, not the polyurethane foam. However, the foam also played an important role in helping the STP function and improving compliance for users.

2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Ahmed Alalawi ◽  
Masood Mazaheri ◽  
Alessio Gallina ◽  
Alejandro Luque-Suarez ◽  
Michele Sterling ◽  

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